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Duty of a seller of land runs to who?

The buyer and his invitees/licensees


If a statute applies, that always supersedes what?

Common-law tort principles


What Is the common-law status approach?

Majority approach where the duty owed by the land occupier to someone entering his property depends on the status of the Entrant, and that determines the standard of care owed


What are the categories of risk for the common-law status approach?

Activities, artificial conditions, natural conditions


What is the risk that comes from activities on land?

Injuries that Come from conduct of someone on the land


What are artificial conditions?

Circumstances created by people on the land


What are some examples of artificial conditions?

Buildings, excavation, cultivation


What are natural conditions?

Things not created by people but that exist on the land


What are some examples of natural conditions?

Natural bodies of water, trees, falling boulders, etc.


What are the different categories of plaintiffs in the common-law status approach?

- persons not on the land, but adjacent to it
- persons on the land


What is the duty owed it to someone not on the land, but adjacent to it?

- Activities: RC to prevent injury from activities
- AC: RC to prevent injury from conditions that abut/protrude onto adjacent land
- NC: + no duty, - RC to prevent injury


If someone else is doing an activity on your land that injure someone not on your land, who is liable?

You are liable for reasonable care to prevent that injury


What is the duty to protect passersby on public streets from artificial conditions on your land?

RC to prevent injury from unreasonably dangerous artificial conditions


If you put up a Barbwire fence around your property, what do you have to do?

Reasonable steps to warn or protect people on public land beside yours from injury


What are The two exceptions to the duty of reasonable care for artificial conditions to people that are not on your land?

1) anything that protrudes/abuts adjacent land, you must show due care to inspect and maintain the thing that abuts
2) if it substantially adjoins a public road, you must show due care to protect users of the road from harm


If you own store that has a large sign that protrudes over the sidewalk that is suspended by cables that you haven't checked for many years, and the cables corrode and the sign falls on someone, what is your duty?

Duty to keep the cables from injuring anyone on the sidewalk


What is the majority and minority position for natural conditions for people that are not on your land?

- majority: no duty to protect a plaintiff with the exception of reasonable care for native trees on urban land
- minority: RC to prevent injury


What is the native trees on urban land exception?

There is a duty to exercise reasonable care to protect plaintiffs that are passing by from native trees on urban land. The trees cannot grow and create an unreasonable risk of harm to travelers on adjacent public streets


If the landowner has no actual or constructive notice of the danger of native trees on urban land, is there still liability for that exception?

No, so if the decayed to that looked perfectly healthy fell and hurt someone, there's no liability


Are the different statuses for someone on the land?

Trespassers, invitees, licensees


Is it Possible for plaintiff's status to change?



What are the major different types of trespassers?

Unknown, known, frequent, children


What is a trespasser?

Someone who enters land or stays on property without permission or privilege of the occupier


Does a trespasser have to have bad intent?

No, he might not even know he's trespassing, all that matters is that he didn't have the occupier's permission to enter, or any privilege to be on the land


What The duty owed to an unknown trespasser?

No duty to the person, and no duty to inspect the land to discover him


Trespassers take the property as what?

It Existed when they entered the land, including concealed artificial and natural dangers


An occupier has no legal obligation to do what for an unknown trespasser?

Discover, remedy, or warn of dangers, he only have to refrain from willfully and wantonly harming the trespasser or setting traps


Is an Electric fence an okay way to defend your property?

No because it uses excessive force and is thought of as a trap


What is a known trespasser?

Someone that defendant becomes aware is trespassing on the land or learns of facts that should reasonably lead him to conclude someone has trespassed


What is the duty owed to a known trespasser?

- activities: RC to prevent injuries
- AC: RC to warn of hidden dangers the defendant is aware of and trespasser isn't
- NC: no duty to prevent injury


If defendant doesn't know about a trespasser's presence, does he owe any duties for activities he carries out on the land?



Is the duty of reasonable care to warn trespassers of artificial conditions an absolute duty?

No, you don't have to guarantee the safety or completely protect the person


What is a frequent trespasser?

Someone the D knows or reasonably should know frequently enters on a portion of the land


How is a frequent trespasser treated?

Same as a known trespasser


What would be a good indication of a frequent trespasser?

Noticing a beaten path


It is CTULA?

Constant Trespassers upon a limited area


What does CTULA mean?

People habitually intruding on the land or a certain portion of the land


What is example of CTULA?

People that take shortcuts across land


What is the duty owed to CTULA's?

The land occupier has to know/have reason to know of them and physical evidence on the land is enough for that knowledge. He must object to their intrusions and that will convert them into ordinary trespassers


How can a landowner object to CTULA people?

By posting signs


If CTULA intrusions continue after landowner has objected, and the landowner knows it but doesn't do anything, what status do those people retain?

CTULA status


Why are CTULAs given a higher duty of care then ordinary trespassers if a land occupier knows about them and does nothing?

He has impliedly consented to their presence


What is the duty owed to a trespasser in peril?

If a landlord notices a trespasser in peril that is helpless or unable to defend himself, there's a duty of reasonable care to aid him


What Is the duty of a seller of land to the buyer?

Duty to disclose concealed unreasonable dangerous conditions if the seller knows/should have known and buyer is unaware and not likely to discover