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Flashcards in Page 24 Deck (25):
1

What is an independent intervening force?

A force that doesn't come from a response or reaction to the defendant's breach of duty which is reasonably foreseeable and doesn't supersede the negligence unless it is unforeseeable or intentionally tortious/criminal

2

If you get hit by someone in a car accident and get surgery and a bacteria in the air causes infection and you die, who is liable?

The person that hit you

3

What is the superseding intervening force?

New force that is highly improbable and extraordinary that joins the defendant's negligence to injure the plaintiff

4

Examples of superseding intervening forces?

Acts of nature that weren't anticipated, extreme malpractice, suicide that wasn't defendant's fault and defendant didn't have special relationship that included a knowledge of the risk of suicide

5

If a Foreseeable result is caused by an unforeseeable intervening force, where is the liability?

Defendant is still liable as long as the result was foreseeable

6

Special considerations for foreseeability?

Acts of God, abnormal rescue attempts, criminal conduct by third parties, negligent conduct by third parties, subsequent or second accident, risk rule

7

Examples of acts of God?

Unprecedented and extraordinary floods, storms, weather conditions

8

If a person's rescue attempt is foolhardy is it considered foreseeable and relieves the defendant of liability?

Yes, even if it leads to foreseeable result

9

If a third-party doesn't prevent the harm by the defendant, does that relieve defendant of liability?

No, even if that third-party had a duty to act

10

If a third-party's failure to act is so culpable and extraordinary that he neutralized the risk created from the defendant's original negligence, is his failure a superseding cause?

Yes

11

If you leave dynamite caps for a child picks them up and show them to dad, and the guy doesn't take them away, where does liability lie?

With the dad, because his negligence was extraordinary and neutralize the risk so you were't liable

12

Criminal and intentional conduct by third parties usually breaks the chain of causation unless what?

It is within the scope of risk normally created by the defendant's conduct

13

If a landlord doesn't keep lights maintained in a high crime area and someone gets attacked, who is responsible?

The landlord because the risk was within the scope of risk normally created by the defendant's conduct

14

If You leave a skateboard on the sidewalk and it gets used to break a car window to steal a radio, are you liable?

No because the criminal conduct was an intervening event that broke the chain of causation since the risk was a someone would trip on it and fall, not steal something with it

15

Does negligent conduct by third parties break the chain of causation?

usually unless it is within the scope of the risk created by the conduct

16

If you block the sidewalk and force someone to step onto the street, are you liable if that person gets hit by a negligent driver?

Yes, because the scope of the risk was someone getting hurt on the street

17

If you block the sidewalk and someone has to step on the street and gets shot by a stray bullet from a nearby bank robbery, are you liable ?

No, because that wasn't within the scope of the risk and counts as an intervening cause that relieves liability

18

Is the defendant liable if his negligence leaves the P in a position of peril?

Yes

19

If You negligently run over a pedestrian who is then hit by a bus, are you the proximate cause of all of his injuries?

Yes, because your negligence left him in a position of peril

20

What is the risk rule?

If the harm is within the scope of the risk from defendant's conduct, proximate cause is present

21

If you leave an open pit in the sidewalk and the plaintiff was injured when someone pushed him in the pit, are you liable?

Yes, because the harm was within the scope even though the manner was unexpected

22

What does superseding mean?

force is so highly improbable and extraordinary that there's no connection to the harm threatened and is an exception to the foreseeability test

23

What is the restatement's test for figuring out if an intervening force is superseding?

- if the intervention causes harm different than what usually happen
- consequences are extraordinary
- force is independent of the situation created by defendant
- force is due to third party's act/failure to act
- third person's act as wrongful toward another, so he is liable

24

What is the eggshell personal injury rule?

The type of injury doesn't have to be foreseeable because you take the plaintiff as you find him and defendant is liable for unforeseeable or uncommon reactions to the defendant's negligent or intentional act

25

Abnormal or highly unusual reactions to defendant's breach are usually what?

Unforeseeable and supersede defendants liability