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Is there a duty of care to prevent emotional distress for someone on your land?

Not Unless it is parasitic to physical injury, then the damages can be recovered as part of the physical injury action


What is an invitee?

Someone that Rightfully enters the land at the express or implied invitation of the possessor for the beneficial purpose of possessor's interest or activities


What are the two different types of invitees?

Business and public


Who owes the duty of care to an invitee?

The land possessor, although landlords owe it for common areas and hidden defects


An invitee must stay where?

On the part of the land he is invited onto


If an invitee goes outside of the part of the land he's invited onto, what is his new status?

Either trespasser or licensee


If an invitee got onto a part of the land he didn't have permission to enter (either negligently or accidentally) does that change the fact that he's now a trespasser or licensee?



Is there a duty to aid an injured invitee?



What is a business invitee?

Someone that enters the land for the purpose of the possessor's financial benefit, business activities, or interests


Examples of business invitees?

Customers, delivery people, sales people, garbage collectors, building inspectors, job applicants, etc.


Is The land owner responsible for intervening criminal or intentional acts of others?

Not unless those acts were foreseeable


If Police have warned a landowner about criminal or intentional activities taking place on his property, what is his duty?

To Act reasonably to reduce the risk of harm caused by those acts


If you own a bar and police tell you criminals often steal vehicles from it, what is your duty?

Reduce the risk of harm to your customers


What Is a public invitee?

A member of the public that enters onto possessor's land for the purpose the land is held open for


What are some examples of public invitees?

Visitors to airports, churches, museums, train passengers, hotel guests, etc.


Is a personal or express invitation necessary for a public invitee?

No, because the property is held open to the public


In Order for someone to count as a public invitee, does the actual premises have to be public, or can it be private?

It can be something like a public library, or a privately owned drugstore


What are The duties owed to invitees?

- activities: RC to prevent injuries
- AC: RC to discover dangerous AC that invitee wouldn't be reasonably aware of, and warn, or take other precautions
- NC: RC


If a warning wouldn't be enough for an artificial condition for an invitee, what must you do?

Use reasonable care to provide other precautions


If a grocery store has a spill that someone slips on and get injured by, what are the things you should discuss on an essay?

What is reasonable, how much time has passed, notice, etc.


Are warnings enough to satisfy a duty for an invitee?

- Traditionally: yes
- modern: land occupier has to actually make the place safe if a warning wouldn't make the condition or activity reasonably free from dangers


If a Condition wouldn't present sufficient danger, is a warning necessary for invitees?

No, like if it only happened once in 25 years


Could a land occupier have a duty of reasonable care to warn or protect invitees for foreseeable tortious criminal acts of third parties?



If you own a restaurant in a high crime area, what do you need to do?

Take Reasonable measures to protect your patrons from robberies


What does it mean to exceed the scope if you are an invitee?

You enter an area of the land your invitation doesn't extend to, or stay on the land longer than your invitation contemplated - you become a licensee or a trespasser


What are The two ways you can exceed the scope as an invitee?

Either time or space


If the train passenger is leaving the train, is he still in invitee?

Yes, leaving customer is still a customer


If a train passenger jumps on the tracks, is he still an invitee?



In stores and restaurants if a person only enters to use the bathroom, are they still an invitee?



How are delivery people considered invitees?

They had an invitation based on the order that was made


How does foreseeability relate to invitees?

- Some jurisdictions say the land occupier has to be aware of specific, immediate harm about to happen to someone
- others say there's only a duty if there's evidence of previous crimes
- others say landowners only owe a duty to protect against crime that is foreseeable under the totality of the circumstances


What is a public entrant?

A public employee that enters under lawful privilege


If the possessor undertakes to supply equipment, tools, or tattle to people coming on his land for business, what is his duty?

A duty of care to inspect and discover any defective condition in the chattels that he supplies


If a public employee goes on your property for nonemergency situations, how are they treated?

As invitees even though they don't have the possessor's consent


Examples of public employees that would be treated as invitees?

Building inspectors, mailmen, meter readers


What is a licensee?

Someone that intentionally enters land with the possessor's express or implied permission, not for the purpose of benefiting the possessor, and has a limited license to be there


Licensee takes the property as what?

In the condition the land possessor uses it because the possessor has no obligation to make it safe


What is the only duty of a land possessor to licensee?

We must warn of concealed artificial or natural dangers actually known to him


What are the things a possessor can assume about a licensee?

That he is reasonably attentive and will notice obvious dangers, so warnings only need to be given about hidden dangers


Examples of licensees ?

Visiting relatives, social guests, business visitors, door-to-door sales people, charity solicitors, someone borrowing tools, bringing lunch to your dad, invitees that exceeded the scope of permission etc.


What Category do firefighters usually go into?



If a landowner is not aware of conditions or activities, does he owe a duty for them to licensees?



How Can you discharge your duty to licensees?

By posting signs or warnings unless you know they are ineffective


Duties owed to a licensee?

- Activities: RC (to warn, or Discover licensees they don't know of)
- AC/NC: RC to warn of conditions he is aware of or should be aware of that are unreasonably dangerous and licensee is unaware of or unlikely to discover


Is there a Duty to inspect the land for dangerous conditions to a licensee?



After possession has been transferred, sellers are not liable for harm to others except when?

When the seller doesn't disclose unknown dangerous conditions, then he is liable to the buyer, the buyer's family, and third person entering the land with buyer's consent