Pancreas: Histo and Phys (Nutting) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pancreas: Histo and Phys (Nutting) Deck (48):
1

What islet cells secrete insulin?

beta

2

What islet cells secrete glucagon?

alpha

3

What islet cells secrete somatostatin?

delta

4

What islet cells secrete peptide polypeptide?

F cells

5

inhibits both glucagon and insulin

somatostatin

6

describe the cellular organization in an islet

roughly~ alpha cells on outside with beta cells in middle and delta cells in-between beta cells

7

proinsulin → insulin + _____

C-peptide

8

Islets are separated from the ______ by a fine fibrous capsule that extends into the islet together with blood vessels

exocrine cells

9

round oval islets vs trabecular, irregular in shape islets

beta cell rich are rounder
pancreatic peptide rich are irregular

10

What part of the pancreas are the trabecular, irregular islets that secrete PP found?

posterior part of the pancreatic head

11

contains secretory acini

exocrine cells of pancreas

12

picks up exocrine secretions, to the islet secretions bc they go to capillaries

duct of the exocrine pancreas

13

____ cells occupy 65-70% of the islet volume!

beta
**take away is that beta >> alpha volume

14

function of pancreatic polypeptide

self regulates the pancreas secretory activities (endocrine and exocrine)
affects hepatic glycogen levels and GI secretions
**DJ talked about it as being *anorexigenic and ↑ conc after a meal

15

What decreases PP secretion?

somatostatin and IV glc

16

What increases PP secretion?

eating protein meal
fasting
exercise
acute hypoglygemia

17

describe the structure of proinsulin moleucle

a chain and B chain attached via 2 disulfide bonds with C peptide between them

at 2 locations, there are a pair of basic aa that are cleaved to release C-peptide and insulin

18

Pro insulin is converted into the mature hormone by the combined action of ...
Where in the cell does this occur?

two endoproteases and a carboxypeptidase E
Secretory vesicles

19

Why is C-peptide used to measure islet function in pts treated with exogenous insulin?

cannot measure insulin bc you do not know how much the pt has made and how much is exogenous. Tells you how many islet cells may be left/have residual function

20

Describe the process of insulin synthesis

1. signal peptide translocates translated protein into the ER
2. folding and oxidation (and signal seq cleavege) in ER
3. ER → golgi → vesicle
4. in vesicle, proteases cleave/liberate C peptide
5. carboxypeptidase E produces mature insulin

21

Stimuli for increased and decreased insulin secretion:

Inc secretion:
↑ plasma glc
↑ plasma aa
↑ FA, ketones
↑ inc GI hormones, mainly GIP, GLPs)
↑ GH
↑ Cortisol
↑ Ach (parasympathetics)
↑ glucagon
*GGGG AAFC

Decreased secration:
↑ Epi, NE (sympathetics)
↑ somatostatin

22

Stimuli for increased and decreased glucagon secretion:

Increased secretion:
↑ plasma aa
↑ Ach
↑ epi, NE (sympathetics)
↑ VIP
↑ CCK
*VAACS

Decreased section:
↑ plasma glc
↑ insulin
↑ somatastatin
↑ FFA, ketones
*FIGS

23

Why does an ↑ in plasma aa signal glucagon to be released?

to prevent sudden hypoglycemia if you eat a high protein meal without carbs

24

where is insulin degraded?

liver and kidneys by insulinases

25

Where is glucagon degraded?

liver

26

Where in the body does insulin exert the majority of its action?

liver, that is where it goes first
muscle
adipose

27

Where in the body does glucagon exert the majority of its action?

liver, that is where it goes first and it is then degraded there ∴ periphery has very low [glucagon]

28

what additional action will glucagon have at high conc?

lipolytic
→ takes high conc to get to periph to have this effect, usually it is localized to the liver bc it is degraded there

29

how do PERIPHERAL glucagon levels change in response to a meal?

peripherally it does NOT change (and is LOW)
(levels fluctuate in pancreas in response to food)

30

What does insulin stimulate in many tissues?

glc uptake and utilization

31

How is glc "utilized" in cells?

-make ATP
-make glycogen
-make TAG

32

in what cells/tissue will insulin NOT stimulate glc uptake

brain (*except part of hypothalamus)
intestinal mucosa
RBCs
Kidney tubules

33

What is the only part of the brain that insulin will stimulate glc uptake?

hypothalamus

34

speed and duration of action of glucagon vs insulin

both act fast and decrease in conc quickly after action

35

glucagon complements the effects of what substances? WHY?

Epi and NE bc is is best to not be hypoglycemic, we need energy! ∴ they can substitute for each other = redundancy!!

36

how does glucagon maintain normal glc conc

promotes glc release from the liver

37

what effects does glucagon have on the liver?

↑ glycogenolysis
↑ aa uptake → gluconeogenesis
↑ ketoneogenesis (TAG → KB for energy)

38

What is needed for glucagon to be synthesized in the liver

corstiol

39

What enzymes does glucagon effect?

↑cAMP and PKA to..
↑ phosphorylase → glycogenolysis
↓ glycogen synthase
↓ F-2,6,6-BP = ↑gluconeogenesis and ↓glycolysis
↓ PK activity to ↓pyruvate/AcCosA→TAG

40

____ is the most potent hormone

insulin

41

insulin is anabolic or catabolic hormone?

anabolic (and anti-catabolic)
*promotes synthesis of storage forms and inhibits breakdown from these stores

= Stimulates building up while inhibiting breakdown!

42

What effects does insulin have in muscle?

↑ glc uptake
↑ aa uptake
↑ LPL synthesis (extracts FA from VLDL and CMs for energy)

↓ protein breakdown and aa release
(↑ protein synthesis, may or may not)

43

What effects does insulin have in adipose?

↑ glc uptake
↑↑↑ TAG synthesis
↑ FA synthesis (glc → pyruvate→ AcCoA → malonylCoA →LCFA)
↑ LPL activity

↓↓↓ lipolysis

44

What effects does insulin have in liver?

↑ TAG synthesis
↑ protein synthesis

↓ VLDL and apoB synthesis
↓ glc release
↓ ketogenesis

45

insuilin ↑ or ↓ activity of hormone sensitive lipase

46

What effect will high levels of GH and cortisol have on muscle and fat cells (in terms of insulin activity)

they become insulin resistant

47

what increases the sensitivity of the body to hyperglyemia

GH, cortisol, and T3 → insulin more readily released

48

In terms of biochem mechs, how does insulin increase glc uptake by muscle and adipose?

insulin binds receptor and stimulates translocation of glc transporter proteins from vesicles to surface of PM