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Flashcards in Periods, 101 Deck (52):
1

Survival of ovum = ____ h
Survival of sperm = ____ h

6-12

24-48

2

Typical ejaculate =
vol: ___ mL
conc: ___ mil/mL
tot#: ___ mil

1-3
1
100-300

3

What mechanisms help to facilitate fertilization?

1. timing (boners + female cycle)
2. lots of sperm
3; cervical mucus thinning
4. increased motility of female tract

4

When does cervical thinning occur?

midcycle, due to estrogen

5

Female tract motility is enhanced by:

E2, PG, OT

6

Successful conception is most likely...

2 days before + day of ovulation

7

How does female age related to contraception?

decreased chance of preg after age 35 due to fewer follicles

8

___% of ova regress before puberty even happens.

70

9

When all ova are gone, ____ occurs

menopause

10

Menopause is associated with a decline in ____ and an increase in ___.

decreased estrogen

increased LH + FSH

11

The follicle secretes:

estradiol-17beta
androgen (from thecal cells)
progesterone

12

Granulosa cells make:

estrogen (from androgens)
inhibin

13

Thecal cells make:

androgens

14

FSH stimulates _____ cells.
LH stimulates _____ cells.

granulosa
thecal

15

Why does only ONE follicle function as the "dominant" follicle?

secretes a magical unknown substances which causes the other ovary and the surrounding follicles to regress

16

The _____ cells secrete inhibin, which feeds back to reduce secretion of _____.

granulosa

FSH

**note: this happens at end of follicular and during luteal phases

17

FSH increases during the menstrual cycle in response to:

loss of negative feedback by estrogen, progesterone and inhibin

18

What surges immediately before ovulation?

LH
(and FSH, but it's not a huge surge)

19

When progesterone is high, what is going on in the dominant follicle?

it is turning into corpus luteum

20

What ovarian phase is prior to ovulation?
What ovarian phase is post-ovulation?

follicular
luteal

21

Following the menstrual phase...
What uterine phase is prior to ovulation?
What uterine phase is post-ovulation?

proliferative
secretory

22

Progesterone and estrogen levels both begin to decline around week ___ of cycle.

4
(thus very low while you're actually bleeding; and yes, I know for you this like week 7 because your uterus is very nice)

23

How does basal body temp relate to the cycle?

increases 1'F following ovulation and remains elevated until menstruation

24

Menstrual phase lasts ___ days.
Proliferative phase lasts ___ days.
Secretory phase lasts ___ days.

~5
~11
~12

25

Estrogen acts via negative feedback on:

1. hypothalamus, blocking release of GnRH
2. FSH release
3. LH release

26

Inhibin acts via negative feedback on:

1. FSH release
2. Ant. pituitary

27

During the early follicular phase, granulosa cells secrete ___.
During mid-follicular phase this hormone acts on ___, which results in...

estrogen

granulosa cells to increase their proliferation (via + feedback)

28

Act w/in the follicle to promote cellular proliferation and hormone secretion (4)

inhibin
IgF-2
activins
VEGF

29

Granulosa cells in the late follicular phase have receptors for:

FSH
LH

30

How do thecal and granulosa cells cooperate?

1. Thecal cells produce androgens, and use progenolone synthesized by granulosa cells

2. Granulosa cells synthesize estradiol, using androgens synth by theca cells

31

Ovulation is triggered by:

LH surge

32

During ovulation, _____ ruptures after attack by ___.

follicular membrane

proteolytic enzymes

33

Variation in length of a woman;s cycle is caused by the length of the ______

follicular phase

34

Corpus luteum develops from _____, beginning (when?).

follicular cells

shortly before ovulation

35

How can you tell the corpus luteum has started developing (based on hormones)?

small increase in progesterone, which occurs at the end of the follicular phase

36

When does the CL degenerate?

last 5 days of the luteal phase

37

_____ +/- _____ inhibits FSH and LH secretion.

Inhibin +/- progesterone

38

What is luteolysis?

CL regression + degeneration

39

When does luteolysis occur?

day 8 after ovulation

40

What causes the decline in estrogen + progesterone?

degeneration of CL

41

Luteolysis can be prevented by:

stimulation with LH or hCG

42

hCG is produced/secreted by:

placenta, upon implantation of a blastocyst

43

Compared with midfollicular granulosa cells, luteinizing granulosa cells are producing:

progesterone
(LH stimulation)

44

Why does FSH and LH rise during menstruation?

estrogen, progesterone + inhibin decline, which removes negative feedback inhibition of LH/FSH

45

During menstruation, increased FSH/LH results in:

stimulation of growth of new follicles
(which produce estrogen + some inhibin)

46

What triggers the LH (+FSH) surge?

new follicles result in steadily increasing estrogen, which triggers LH/FSH surge via increased response of gonadotrophs to GnRH

47

Follicular phase in ovary corresponds to what phase(s) in endometrium?

menstrual + proliferative

48

Luteal phase in ovary corresponds to what phase(s) in endometrium?

secretory

49

You can induce ovulation in women with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadiam by giving them:

regular pulses of GnRH
(which result in pretty normal estrogen and progesterone patterns)

50

If ovulation doesn't occur, what happens to CL?

still forms/develops + secretes E/P
(cycle appears nml)

51

An increased incidence of shorter luteal phases has been noted in:

1. women who start a heavy workout program
2. infertile women
3. women w/ 1st trimester miscarriages

52

How are mammary gland cells affected by menstrual cycle?

increased mitotic rate in luteal phase