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Flashcards in Paracitism Deck (21)
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1

ox peckers

--"clean" ticks from animal orifices
-have taste for blood
-keep wounds open
-not mutualistic

2

Ectoparasite

lives on the body

3

Endoparasite

lives in the body

4

Parasitoid

lives inside the body and kills the host
-limit to growth because of limited resourse

5

Brood parasites

Invade the nest

6

Wasp/aphid

plant emits pheremones to let wasps know that there's an aphid
-wasp lays eggs inside aphid
-wasp eggs hatch and larva eat aphid

7

Parasites

Don't kill host because they need it for survival

8

parrots vs lice

light parrots selected for light ticks on their body

9

Macroparasites

-big enough to see with eyes
-don't multiply inside of host
-aggregate --> "clump distribution"
-worms are common

10

tapeworm life cycle

-person eats bad hotdog
-passes tapeworm in stool
-pig ingests tapeworm
-eggs hatch and invade pig's muscle tissue
-larva form cysts in muscle tissue
-cysts can survive being undercooked

11

Ascaris

Nematod that infects people and blocks their intestines

12

Schistosome

-macroparasite
-intermediate host = snails
-definitive host = people (vertebrates)
-immune system forms calcareous deposits around it, blocking spleen and excretory passages

13

3 methods of mind control

1. Release chemicals that stimulate neuro-motor control
2. Highjack central nervous system
3. molecular mimicry proteins that are used to manipulate behavior

14

Horsehair worm

-eggs laid in water
-larva infect aquatic insects (intermediate)
-cricket (definitive) eats intermediate
-develops inside cricket and makes it commit suicide in water

15

spiny headed worm

makes isopods have risky behavior
-more succeptible to starlings

16

trematodes

-parasites for killfish
-increase conspicuous behavior
-killfish get eaten by birds (definitive hosts)
-more parasites = more conspicuous

17

Mustard plant

-gets infected with rust fungus
-fungus divides meristems
-pseudo-flowers grow on top
-pollinators help spread fungus

18

mange mites

-hair loss and deterioration in foxes
-affects hare population too

19

How do hosts avoid brood parasitism

-aggressive behavior
-nest abandonment
-remove parasitic egg
-remove parasitic chick

20

How do brood parasites do what they do

-rapid egg laying and thick eggs
-rapid development
-sometimes more colorful mouths or louder begging
baby cuckoo kicks other eggs out of the nest

21

punishment for avian brood parasite hosts

cowbird will kill all of magpie (or curtland warbler)'s offspring if its own egg is rejected