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Flashcards in Biomes and the Biosphere Deck (35)
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1

Atmospheric envelope

-clean, dry air at Earth's surface
-70% N
-21% O
-1% Ar
-0.003% CO2
-0.00005% ozone

2

Greenhouse effect

-heat trapped in earth's atmosphere by greenhouse gasses
-water, CO2, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
-absorb infrared and reemit it back to earth
-30% reflected by clouds + particles
-70% absorbed by atmosphere or surface

3

ozone

-filters harmful UV radiation
-absorbs UV, but breaks its bonds in the process
-CFCs break the bonds too and reduce ozone layer

4

Tilt of Earth's axis

-uneven heating
-seasons
-drives air circulation and precipitation patterns
-tropics get most direct sunlight (area per unit light) --> 23.5 N to 23.5 S

5

Air Circulation

-warm, moist air rises, cools, condenses, and rains
-cool, dry air falls back to surface
-Polar cells --> towards the earth and towards the pole
-Ferrel cells --> opposite from closest polar
-Hadley cells--> opposite from closest Ferrel

6

Coriolis effect

-apparent deflection of the winds
-move clockwise in northern hemisphere
-move counterclockwise in southern hemisphere
-wind is fastest at equator

7

Ocean circulation

-follows prevailing winds
-currents carry cool water to equator from poles and warm water from the equator to the poles
-air is cooled or warmed by these currents before passing over land

8

Gulf stream

-made from central american land bridge
-affects climates as far away as the British isles

9

3 main factors that contribute to storms

- water temperature (temperature)
- wind shear (wind)
- atmospheric moisture (rain)

10

Mointain's + water effect on climate

-in U.S. wind blows from west
- wind causes air to rise, cool, and condense on west side of mountain
-cool, dry air descends on east side of mountain (rain shadow)

11

Mountain shadow deserts

-east side of mountains in temperate zones
-west side of mountains in tropical zones

12

El Nino

off coast of Peru

-usually wind goes westward and warms over western pacific while picking up moisture

-during El nino, the eastern pacific is unusually warm --> causes storms in the east and droughts in the west

13

El nino affect on Great Salt Lake

-more storms raise levels 3.7 m
-salinity drops by 50 g/L
-lake invaded by predatory insect
-brine shrimp went from 12000 - 74 per m^3
-a bunch of phytoplankton
-eventually went back to normal

14

Bodies of water

-large bodies of water govern climate of nearby land
-Day: warm air rises over land, cool breeze from water
-Night: warm air rises from water and moves out from land

15

Photic zone

-epipelagic region of ocean that's reached by light
-inhabited by phytoplankton and zooplankton
-produce 1/4 of oxygen for biosphere

16

Thermocline

separates warm water from cold water
-winter and summer (?)

17

Turnover

mixing of oxygenated surface water with deeper, nutrient-rich water
-semi annual
-fall and spring

18

Types of coral reefs

-fringing reefs = hug the shore of continents
-barrier reefs = stand between ocean and lagoon
-coral atolls = coral inlets built up from submerged ocean islands

19

Shallow marine water

-reefs and kelp beds when there's sunlight --> limited by temp --> very productive and diverse
-cleaned and feuled by currents

20

estuaries

-productive, nutrient rich transition bt ocean and river
-water levels very spatially and temporally due to tides
-nutrients driven by ocean tides and river flow

21

Saltmarshes and mangroves

-concentrated along low lying coasts
-saltmarsh grasses and algae are major producers and attract a bunch of animals
-carbon sequestration

22

climography plots

-leslie holdrige
-temp on y axis
-rain on x axis

23

climate diagram

-temp on right
-rain on left
-months on x axis

24

How do we catagorize terrestrial biomes?

-plants
-climate (temp and rain)

also distribution and animals

25

serotiny

Jack pine is seratinous bc its cones only open to expose seeds when its super hot bc of a forest fire

26

Convergent evolution in dif biomes

-similar characteristics due to similar environments
-cacti in north america and euphorbs in african desert
-dif evolutionary lineages

27

Tropical wet forests

-vertically layered
-competition for light --> broad leaves + lateral growth
-highest diversity of terrestrial biomes
-high productivity
-low soil nutrients
-water is NOT limiting --> plants shed water
-stratification/specialization
-understory + canopy leaves are evergreen
-thin, smooth bark
-buttress roots

28

Tropical dry forests

-deciduous leaves
-thick corky bark with thorns and spikes
-small leaves
-flower during dry season

29

Tropical Savana

-tropical grassland
-10-20 N and S
-dry season is 8-9 months
-temp varies seasonally (usually 24-29)
-grasses, sedges, and herbs with occasional tree
-vegitation is resistant to drought
-trees are deciduous and less than 20 m tall

30

Deserts

-30 N and S
-less than 30 cm rain per year
-temp varies seasonally
-plants resistant to heat + desication --> small leaves and good water storage
-animals can conserve water and some are nocturnal