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Flashcards in spatial ecology Deck (34)
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1

geladas

live in clumps with dominant males

2

Distribution types

Random: uniform resourse distribution and absense of strong repulsion or attraction among individuals

Uniform: exclussive use of areas. individuals avoid each other. territorality

Clumped: most common--> mutual attraction and patchy resourse availability--> mating behavior and group defense

3

seastar distribution type

clumped

4

penguin distribution type

uniform

5

dandelion distribution type

random

6

index of dispersion

used to determine distribution type
mean count per quadrant / variance
>1 are clumped
=1 are random
<1 are uniform

7

desert shrubs

begin clumped, but members of the population die as they age due to competition. Eventually become random and then uniform

8

reasons for desert shrub clumping

1. seed germination in a safe place
2.seed dispersal
3.asexual reproduction

9

relationship between bodymass/biomass and species density

negative

10

plant size vs density

-seedlings can live at high densities
-trees live at lower densities
-example: sequoia and lemma

11

Christmas bird count

Chapman said we should count them rather than hunt them --> can learn about their distributions

12

Audobon bubble plots

tell liklihood of detecting a species in a particular place

13

cardinal disperal type

uniform

14

fish crow dispersion type

clumped

15

Sort these from highest to lowest elevation: Red maple, hemlock, table mountain pine

table mountain pine, red maple, hemlock

16

moisture gradient

trees showed clumping along moisture gradient
-dry at top, wet at bottom

17

Ehleringer and Clark

-encelia californica = cool moist and cool dry
-encelia actoni = dry warm
-encelia farinosa = hot

18

kangaroos

climate impacts their distribution

19

climate change

organisms retreat northward in response to melting glaciers --> evidence in pollen

20

Tree dispersal rate

100-400 meters per year

21

range expansion

dispersal involving the movement of small seeds or larvae over large geographical area

22

Tree of heaven (A. altisima)

-example of range expansion
-grew rapidly and produced many seeds and became invasive because it didn't have its control species like it did in china
-moth spread rapidly with it

23

Honey bees from Africa

-hybridized in Brazil
-aggressive
-range expansion all the way to north america

24

collared doves

invasive species from turkey
-introduced to Jamaca, so it spread throughout US

25

difference between dispersal and migration

-dispersal is usually individaul
-they don't return
-can be small or large scale

26

methods of seed dispersal

gravity, wind, water, pressure, animals

27

Lesser Kestrals

-young emigrate (disperse)
-30% young females
-22% young males
-4% adults

28

how do stream dwellers maintain their position?

-streamlined bodies
-bottom dwellers
-adhesion to surfaces

29

spate

flooding of stream that causes downstream dispersal

30

downstream vs upstream dispersal

passive vs wind or animals