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Flashcards in Predation Deck (30)
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1

In what environments do predator/prey interactions tend to oscillate?

simple environments

2

Expectations for single predator + prey

1. Local extinctions will be corrected by immigration
2. prey population will fluctuate without population changes in predator

3

4 kinds of predator/prey graphs

1. Stable limit cycle
2. Stable point
3. Dampened oscillation to stable point
4. Increasing oscillation to extinction

4

describe spider mite experiment

see notes

5

population changes in wood mice, bank vale, and tawny owl

mice and vole populations cycled, but tawny owl didn't bc it has a diverse diet

6

Prey refuge characteristics

smaller populations are better at hiding
-only prey above a certain number are subject to predation

7

Gause's experiment with Paramecium caudatum and Didinium nasutum

-without refuge, both went extinct
-with refuge, only the predator went extinct
-with refuge and restocking, the populations oscillated

8

Numerical response to increased prey

predator population rises due to increased birthrate and immigration

9

Functional response to increased prey

Predation rate of each individual predator increases

10

Holling's 4 components of feeding rate

1.Searching
2.Capturing
3.Handling
4.Digesting

11

3 types of feeding rate curves

1. filter feeding (steep increase; then plateau)
2. general invertebrate (slow upward curve; plateau)
3. learning predator (S-shaped curve)

12

Total predation rate

(numerical response) x (functional response)

13

Secondary compounds

toxins produced by plants to make them unpalatable to eat

14

What species make up more than half of known terrestrial species on earth (besides microbes)

land plants (mainly angiosperm) and insects

15

Ehrlich-Raven theory assumptions

1. herbivory harms plants
2. plants evolve defenses
3. herbivore activities, growth, reproduction, and evolution have been guided by plants' defenses

16

Generalists

herbivores that can eat many different types of plants

17

specialists

herbivores that can only eat one specific species, genus, or family

18

Allelochemicals

made by plants to eliminate everything around it (e.g. black walnut)

19

Classes of chemical defense

1. Terpenoids
2. Glucosinolates
3. Alkaloids
4. Glycosides
5. Phenolics

20

Terpenoids

formed from acetyl coenzyme A
-built on 5 carbon units assembling into bigger molecules
-menthol, pinene, isoprene, geraniol

21

Glucosinolates

-Sulfur and Nitrogen containing compounds
-found in Brassica genus (cabbage + mustard)
-bitter tasting

22

Alkaloids

-nicotine, tobacco, codine, morphine, strychnine
-some steroids
-theobromine in chocolate and caffeine in coffee

23

Theobromine

-super bitter
-found in cocoa, tea leaves, and kola nut
-causes sleeplessness, tremors, restlesness, anxiety, and increased urination
-dogs + cats metabolize it slowly and can be poisoned by just 50 mg

24

Caffeine

-in coffee, tea, and kola nut
-causes sleeplessness, tremors, restlesness, anxiety, and increased urination
-paralyzes and kills insects
-surrounds soil of coffee plant --> acts as pesticide and inhibits seed germination

25

Glycosides

1. Cyanogenic (have nitrogen)
2. cardiac (don't have nitrogen)

26

Cyanogenic Glycosides

produce hydrogen cyanide when chewed

27

cardiac glycosides

found in milkweed
-affects the heart
-causes vomiting and death
-milkweed sap is in digitalis, a heart drug

28

Phenolics

-in ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
-make plant pigments and make bitter flavor in plants
-major component of wood --> lignin
-cause puckering by reducing lubricant action of glycoproteins in saliva
-deactivates digestive enzymes and makes it hard to extract amino acids
-lemons, onions, soy, berries, vanilla, tumeric, tannic acid, citrus fruits

29

constitutive defense vs induced defence

-always on vs response to stimuli

30

Physical defenses

1. Prickle: sharp outgrowth from epidermis
2. Spine: modified leaf or stipule
3. Thorn: modified stem