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Flashcards in Parasite Deck (46):
1

Congenital Toxoplasmosis

Deafness, Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracranial calcifications

2

How does Naegleria fowleri enter the body?

It enters via the cribriform plate and goes into the CNS

3

Associations of Naegleria fowleri

Freshwater
Water sports
Nasal irrigation systems and contact solution

4

Toxoplasmosis on CT/MRI

Ring enhancing lesions

5

Transmission of Toxoplasmosis

Cysts in undercooked meat
Oocysts in cat feces

6

Treatment for Toxoplasmosis

Sulfadiazine + Pyrimethamine
Prophylaxis in AIDS patients with CD4 count

7

Enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever, somnolence, coma

African Sleeping Sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei

8

Transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

Tsetse fly (painful bite)

9

Giardia associations

Camping
Mountain streams

10

Treatment for Giardia

Metronidazole

11

Pathogenicity of Giardia

Stimulates mucus production that impairs absorptive capacity of intestine

12

Trophozoites with RBCs in the cytoplasm

Entamoeba histolytica

13

Bloody diarrhea, liver abscess, RUQ pain

Entamoeba histolytica

14

Severe diarrhea in AIDS

Cryptosporidium

15

Each Cryptosporidium oocyst has....

4 sporozoites

16

Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium

Sporozoites attach to intestinal wall causing diarrhea and small intestine damage

17

Treatment for Crytposporidium

Prevention - filtering water supplies
Nitazoxanide in immuncompetent hosts
Spiramycin

18

Vaginitis - Foul smelling, greenish discharge, itching and burning

Trichomonas - a flagellated protozoa (motile)

19

Strawberry cervix

Trichomonas

20

Treatment for Trichomonas

Metronidazole for patient AND partner

21

Disease caused by Trypanosoma Cruzi

Chagas disease

22

Dilated cardiomyopathy with apical atrophy, megacolon, megaesophagus

Chagas disease

23

Characteristic acute sign of Chagas disease

Romaña sign - unilateral periorbital swelling characteristic of acute stage

24

Chagas vector

Reduviid bug (painless bite)

25

Diagnosis of Chagas disease

Blood smear

26

Treatment for Chagas disease

Benznidazole or Nifurtimox

27

Leishmania donovani disease

Visceral leishmaniasis

28

Spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia in person from South America, Africa or Middle East

Visceral leishmaniasis

29

Transmission of Leishmaniasis

Sandfly

30

Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

Macrophages containing amastigotes

31

Where does Leishmania donovani multiply? Symptoms because of that?

Multiplies in the reticuloendothelial system; causes pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, fevers`

32

Leishmania braziliensis

CUTANEOUS Leishamaniasis (erythematous papule that expands and boils)

33

Treatment for Leishmaniasis

Amphotericin B
Sodium Stibogluconate (for cutaneous)

34

Intestinal Nematodes

Enterobius vermicularis - pinworm
Ascaris lumbricoides - giant roundworm
Strongyloides stercoralis
Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale - hookworms
Trichinella spiralis

35

Intestinal infection causing anal pruritis (diagnosed by seeing egg via tape test)

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

36

Intestinal infection with possible obstruction at ileocecal valve (blood --> lung --> GI)

Ascaris lumbricoides

37

Transmission of Strongyloides stercoralis

Larvae in soil penetrate the skin

38

Transmission of Necatur americans, Ancylostoma duodenal

Larvae penetrate the skin

39

Intestinal infection causing vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain (may feel like peptic ulcer)

Strongyloides stercoralis

40

Auto infects itself --> larvae hatch from eggs laid in the intestinal wall and repenetrate wall, enter blood stream

Strongyloides stercoralis

41

NO eggs in stool, only larvae

Strongyloides stercoralis

42

Intestinal infection causing ANEMIA by sucking blood from intestinal walls

Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale

43

Transmission of Trichinella spiralis

Fecal-oral; undercooked pork

44

Intestinal infection; larvae enter bloodstream and encyst in STRIATED muscle cells --> inflammation of muscle

Trichinella spiralis

45

Fever, vomiting, nausea, PERIORBITAL EDEMA, MYALGIA

Trichinella spiralis

46

Mechanism of Bendazoles

Microtubule inhibitors - they might cause more obstruction with Ascaris and DON'T GIVE to pregnant women (Pyrantel pamoate instead)