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Flashcards in Part 2 Deck (75)
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1

Why does social smiling not occur until about 2 months of age?

Because infants' eyesight is blurry and they look mostly to top of face

2

Moro reflex

A sequence in which infant flings out arms, spreads fingers, and contracts quickly into fetal position with fingers bent

3

How do emotions develop through physical maturation? (3 ideas)

1. Ability to respond to visual stimuli (matured vison)

2. Crawling and walking introduce new situations with implications for emotion

3. Ability to express emotions more clearly

4

How do emotions develop through cognitive maturation? (3 ideas)

1. Appraisal of situations requires cognitive mechanisms

2. Development of self-conscious emotions and sense of self

3. Development of theory of mind

5

How do emotions develop through social interaction? (3 ideas)

1. Social referencing

2. Cultural display expectations

3. Interacting with other children

6

Intersubjectivity

The sharing of experience

7

Social referencing

Observing other peoples' behaviour as a guide for your own responses

8

Primary intersubjectivity

Infant responds to parent's emotion

9

Secondary intersubjectivity

Infant notices cause of parent's reaction and adjusts their own reaction to that cause (i.e., object)

10

An early sign of social referencing appears at about 9 months of age and is demonstrated by this particular study...

The visual cliff paradigm

11

Appraisal theory posits that...

an emotional response comes AFTER a cognitive appraisal

12

What does it mean to say that "appraisal is about one's relation to the rest of the world"?

Emotions provide us with information about our relation with the world and how we are appraising it.

Think of the core relational themes. Each emotional state has a relational theme. (i.e., the core relational theme for happiness is progressing towards a goal).

13

Shame a guilt are often triggered by similar situations but the _________ are different

appraisals

14

Describe Ekman's neuro-cultural model

Basic and universal facial affects are elicited by culturally variable events, expectations, and/or memories. Expression is then modified by culturally variable display rules and consequences vary in accordance to display rules (i.e., physiological consequence, verbal, motor, facial).

15

According to Lisa Feldman Barrett's theory of constructed emotions...

Specific emotions are experienced differently both within and between individuals yet we all categorize them the same.

16

According to Lisa Feldman Barrett, the brain is a prediction tester with a confirmation bias. What does this mean?

When something happens in which our brain did not accurately predict, we experience feelings that we categorize as emotion

17

Label the 8 stages of Erikson's stage theory with corresponding age

1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-20)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65)
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair

18

Social learning theory...

Emerged from behaviourism and posits that emotions are reinforced and punished

19

What is the basic premise of Sroufe's organizational approach?

All emotions are expressions of tension and there is some compression to pull towards or away

20

Izard

Coined differential emotions theory

Argued that there are 10 fundamental emotions present at birth but they don't all manifest until later on

21

Lewis & Lewis argued that cognitive development...

drives emergence of emotion

22

Theories on emotion fall into what two types of categories?

Constructivist and essentialist

23

What does it mean that initial cells are totipotent?

At that point they could be anything

24

Bridges proposed that early affects at birth can be labeled neutrally as _______

excitement

25

Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 0-1 month of age

Mimicry (closer to one month)
Reflex activity

26

Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 1-3 months of age

Recognizing and preferring faces
Exogenous (social) smile

27

Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 6-9 months of age

Peekaboo and humour
Express emotions more clearly
Discriminate familiars from strangers

28

Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 9-12 months of age

Separation anxiety
Crawl to walk
Vocalization such as "mama" and "dada"

29

What does Winnicott mean by "there is no such thing as an infant?"

Infants are in constant relation to others

30

In Hewlett et al's., study the Aka people...

Had frequent physical contact with their children

31

Bowlby and Ainsworth proposed that...

infants have an innate need for emotional bonds (not just physical)

32

Outline the three different perspectives as to why attachment behaviours begin to emerge soon after 6 months of age

1. Infants' vision substantially improves allowing them to recognize caregivers

2. Piaget argued that infants less than 9 months of age lack object permanence (objects exist even when we can't see them)

3. Attachment helps infants regulate the need to explore and the need to be safe

33

Baby rats injected with a chemical that interferes with _________ fail to develop preference for their mother's smell

oxytocin

34

Separation distress cries are associated with a sudden decrease in ___________

endorphins

35

Describe how a child with an anxious - ambivalent attachment style would act like in the strange situation. What would their caregiver be like?

Across studies from around the world 20% of children are anxious - ambivalent

Cling to parent more; less easily soothed; nervously cling and push away; reluctant to explore on own; panic when left alone

Caregiver characteristics: smothering; engaged but only on their own terms

36

Describe how a child with an avoidant attachment style would act like in the strange situation. What would their caregiver be like?

Across studies from around the world 15% of children are avoidant

Little interest in parent; play on their own; do not cry or protest; do not turn to parent for comfort

Caregiver characteristics: unresponsive

37

One study compared changes in heart rate and cortisol reactivity during the separation phase of the Strange Situation. What were the results?

Avoidant infants (anxious and ambivalent) exhibited the same biological levels of stress

This suggests that anxious avoidant infants don't feel less distress than avoidant ambivalent necessarily, rather they are just handling it in a different way.

38

What is the fourth attachment category? Describe it.

Disorganized attachment
Infant displays open and intense anxiety randomly; erratic and unpredictable
Higher chance that the caregiver is emotionally volatile

39

When Bar-Haim et al., tracked shifts in attachment styles over development, they found that...

shifts from insecure to secure and secure to insecure were equally probable

AND

those with negative life events were more likely to change than be stable whereas those with positive life events were more likely to remain stable

40

What are four implications of attachment theory?

1. The focus on one primary relationship is a cultural artifact

2. Categories are kind of essentialist - children can change

3. Maybe there is a cultural context proponent and we are seeing differences in rearing environments

4. Maybe temperament is at play and some infants are just predisposed to be more sensitive to novel situations

41

Buss and Plomin simplified Thomas and Chess' original 9 indicators by combining them into 3:

Activity, emotionality, sociability

42

Thomas and Chess combined their temperament indicators into 3 categories. Briefly label and describe each one.

Easy - regularity, predominantly positive, adaptable, approach

Difficult - irregularity, withdrawal, predominantly negative, high intensity

Slow to warm up - similar to difficult but mild intensity and may not demonstrate irregularity

43

What percentage of infants are not classified by Thomas and Chess' "easy", "difficult", and "slow to warm up" categories

30 to 40 percent

44

What do we know about temperamental stability?

Behavioural inhibition is a stable component of temperament

45

What conclusions can be made from Chen’s studies based in rural China?

Temperament doesn't change but how it is valued in the society/environment does

46

What are the 3 components of the behavioural genetics heritability calculation discussed in lecture?

1. Shared environment (SE)
2. Non-shared environment (NSE)
3. Heritability coefficient (H)

47

What is the approximate breakdown of the behavioural genetics of temperament?

H = .2 to .6, NSE + SE = .4 to .8

48

What do twin studies tell us about temperament?

Shared genes appear to be associated with temperament

AND

account more for negativity than positivity when it comes to temperament

49

Heritability #

How much genes contribute to variability in a trait

50

Epigenetic drift

Experience changes expression of particular genes

51

How does epigenetics work through the process of methylation?

A methyl group is put on top of a gene to stop it from producing a protein (or vice versa) allowing experience to change function of gene

52

What is an example of an epigenetics study?

Rat licking study AND Suomi research with monkeys raised vs. not raised by caregivers

53

Explain the process of epigenetics (in simple terms) in the rat licking study

High quality parenting -> more glucocorticoid receptors -> low anxiety -> high quality parent next generation

54

Example of a gene associated with emotions

5HTTP Gene aka the serotonin transporter gene

Influences availability of serotonin through interaction with environment

55

Ideal affects

The affective states that people ideally want to feel and try to attain

56

What is the biggest difference between fear and anxiety?

The elicitors of them. Fear is elicited by the known and certain. Anxiety is elicited by the unknown and uncertain

57

Negative emotion is considered less problematic in ____________ cultures than ___________ cultures

collectivist; individualistic

58

Startle potentiation

Idea that we become more startled in situations that are novel and unfamiliar rather than those that are familiar

59

Can we learn fear?

Yes! Think Little Albert.

60

Most common anxiolytics/tranquilizers (drugs that relieve anxiety) fall into a biochemical class known as....

benzodiazepines

61

GABA

Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain

62

Benzodiazepines facilitate the effectiveness of GABA. What are the consequences of this?

GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain so facilitating its effectiveness ultimately suppresses many other areas in the brain causing memory impairment, drowsiness, trouble recognizing facial expressions, etc.

63

___________ and other stress-related hormones increase the responsiveness of the amygdala, whereas ________ decreases it

cortisol; alcohol

64

Why is it that people who are double-jointed (i.e., have joint-laxity syndrome) are more likely to develop strong fears and anxiety related disorders?

The same genetic mutation may have a wide range of effects

65

Anxiety as a primary emotion

Literally feeling anxious

66

Anxiety as a secondary emotion

Feeling anxious about feeling a potential future emotion (i.e., embarrassment)

67

Anxiety as a cognition

Thinking about the future in a concerning and worrying way

68

Describe LeDoux's low road versus high road

The low road generates a rapid emotional response. We start with an emotional stimulus, information goes to sensory thalamus, then straight to the amygdala where an emotional response is generated.

The high road generates a more modulated emotional response with more information (i.e., context and memory) put into it. We start with an emotional stimulus, information goes to sensory thalamus, then to sensory cortex, then to amygdala.

69

What was the main finding of Morales et al's., study on attention bias in infants?

The more anxious mom was the more bias the infant had toward negative/threatening faces

70

Give an example of a "just right" behaviour and a repetitive behaviour

"just right" - shoes need to be placed this close to the door (things need to be a specific way)

Repetitive behaviour - continuously wanting to rewatch a movie, or bed time rituals

71

Two short alleles of the 5HTT serotonin transporter gene means what?

Increased risk of developing psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression

72

What is the general meaning of Erikson's stages?

Personality develops through 8 predetermined stages. During each stage a psychosocial crisis is experienced which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.

73

What is the general meaning of Freud's stages?

Personality development takes place during 5 psychosexual stages. If a child lacks proper nurturance during a stage they may become fixated at that stage

74

What is the general meaning of Sroufe's stages?

Development is organized around a series of issues each with an emotional core.

75

Functionalist and emotion (Campos & Barrett)

Emotion -> Goal -> Appreciation -> Action Tendency -> Adaptive Tendency

Emotions function to regulate