Flashcards in Part 2 Deck (75)
Why does social smiling not occur until about 2 months of age?
Because infants' eyesight is blurry and they look mostly to top of face
A sequence in which infant flings out arms, spreads fingers, and contracts quickly into fetal position with fingers bent
How do emotions develop through physical maturation? (3 ideas)
1. Ability to respond to visual stimuli (matured vison)
2. Crawling and walking introduce new situations with implications for emotion
3. Ability to express emotions more clearly
How do emotions develop through cognitive maturation? (3 ideas)
1. Appraisal of situations requires cognitive mechanisms
2. Development of self-conscious emotions and sense of self
3. Development of theory of mind
How do emotions develop through social interaction? (3 ideas)
1. Social referencing
2. Cultural display expectations
3. Interacting with other children
The sharing of experience
Observing other peoples' behaviour as a guide for your own responses
Infant responds to parent's emotion
Infant notices cause of parent's reaction and adjusts their own reaction to that cause (i.e., object)
An early sign of social referencing appears at about 9 months of age and is demonstrated by this particular study...
The visual cliff paradigm
Appraisal theory posits that...
an emotional response comes AFTER a cognitive appraisal
What does it mean to say that "appraisal is about one's relation to the rest of the world"?
Emotions provide us with information about our relation with the world and how we are appraising it.
Think of the core relational themes. Each emotional state has a relational theme. (i.e., the core relational theme for happiness is progressing towards a goal).
Shame a guilt are often triggered by similar situations but the _________ are different
Describe Ekman's neuro-cultural model
Basic and universal facial affects are elicited by culturally variable events, expectations, and/or memories. Expression is then modified by culturally variable display rules and consequences vary in accordance to display rules (i.e., physiological consequence, verbal, motor, facial).
According to Lisa Feldman Barrett's theory of constructed emotions...
Specific emotions are experienced differently both within and between individuals yet we all categorize them the same.
According to Lisa Feldman Barrett, the brain is a prediction tester with a confirmation bias. What does this mean?
When something happens in which our brain did not accurately predict, we experience feelings that we categorize as emotion
Label the 8 stages of Erikson's stage theory with corresponding age
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-20)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65)
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Social learning theory...
Emerged from behaviourism and posits that emotions are reinforced and punished
What is the basic premise of Sroufe's organizational approach?
All emotions are expressions of tension and there is some compression to pull towards or away
Coined differential emotions theory
Argued that there are 10 fundamental emotions present at birth but they don't all manifest until later on
Lewis & Lewis argued that cognitive development...
drives emergence of emotion
Theories on emotion fall into what two types of categories?
Constructivist and essentialist
What does it mean that initial cells are totipotent?
At that point they could be anything
Bridges proposed that early affects at birth can be labeled neutrally as _______
Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 0-1 month of age
Mimicry (closer to one month)
Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 1-3 months of age
Recognizing and preferring faces
Exogenous (social) smile
Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 6-9 months of age
Peekaboo and humour
Express emotions more clearly
Discriminate familiars from strangers
Name a few developmental onsets that occur between 9-12 months of age
Crawl to walk
Vocalization such as "mama" and "dada"
What does Winnicott mean by "there is no such thing as an infant?"
Infants are in constant relation to others
In Hewlett et al's., study the Aka people...
Had frequent physical contact with their children
Bowlby and Ainsworth proposed that...
infants have an innate need for emotional bonds (not just physical)
Outline the three different perspectives as to why attachment behaviours begin to emerge soon after 6 months of age
1. Infants' vision substantially improves allowing them to recognize caregivers
2. Piaget argued that infants less than 9 months of age lack object permanence (objects exist even when we can't see them)
3. Attachment helps infants regulate the need to explore and the need to be safe
Baby rats injected with a chemical that interferes with _________ fail to develop preference for their mother's smell
Separation distress cries are associated with a sudden decrease in ___________
Describe how a child with an anxious - ambivalent attachment style would act like in the strange situation. What would their caregiver be like?
Across studies from around the world 20% of children are anxious - ambivalent
Cling to parent more; less easily soothed; nervously cling and push away; reluctant to explore on own; panic when left alone
Caregiver characteristics: smothering; engaged but only on their own terms
Describe how a child with an avoidant attachment style would act like in the strange situation. What would their caregiver be like?
Across studies from around the world 15% of children are avoidant
Little interest in parent; play on their own; do not cry or protest; do not turn to parent for comfort
Caregiver characteristics: unresponsive
One study compared changes in heart rate and cortisol reactivity during the separation phase of the Strange Situation. What were the results?
Avoidant infants (anxious and ambivalent) exhibited the same biological levels of stress
This suggests that anxious avoidant infants don't feel less distress than avoidant ambivalent necessarily, rather they are just handling it in a different way.
What is the fourth attachment category? Describe it.
Infant displays open and intense anxiety randomly; erratic and unpredictable
Higher chance that the caregiver is emotionally volatile
When Bar-Haim et al., tracked shifts in attachment styles over development, they found that...
shifts from insecure to secure and secure to insecure were equally probable
those with negative life events were more likely to change than be stable whereas those with positive life events were more likely to remain stable
What are four implications of attachment theory?
1. The focus on one primary relationship is a cultural artifact
2. Categories are kind of essentialist - children can change
3. Maybe there is a cultural context proponent and we are seeing differences in rearing environments
4. Maybe temperament is at play and some infants are just predisposed to be more sensitive to novel situations
Buss and Plomin simplified Thomas and Chess' original 9 indicators by combining them into 3:
Activity, emotionality, sociability
Thomas and Chess combined their temperament indicators into 3 categories. Briefly label and describe each one.
Easy - regularity, predominantly positive, adaptable, approach
Difficult - irregularity, withdrawal, predominantly negative, high intensity
Slow to warm up - similar to difficult but mild intensity and may not demonstrate irregularity
What percentage of infants are not classified by Thomas and Chess' "easy", "difficult", and "slow to warm up" categories
30 to 40 percent
What do we know about temperamental stability?
Behavioural inhibition is a stable component of temperament
What conclusions can be made from Chen’s studies based in rural China?
Temperament doesn't change but how it is valued in the society/environment does
What are the 3 components of the behavioural genetics heritability calculation discussed in lecture?
1. Shared environment (SE)
2. Non-shared environment (NSE)
3. Heritability coefficient (H)
What is the approximate breakdown of the behavioural genetics of temperament?
H = .2 to .6, NSE + SE = .4 to .8
What do twin studies tell us about temperament?
Shared genes appear to be associated with temperament
account more for negativity than positivity when it comes to temperament
How much genes contribute to variability in a trait
Experience changes expression of particular genes
How does epigenetics work through the process of methylation?
A methyl group is put on top of a gene to stop it from producing a protein (or vice versa) allowing experience to change function of gene
What is an example of an epigenetics study?
Rat licking study AND Suomi research with monkeys raised vs. not raised by caregivers
Explain the process of epigenetics (in simple terms) in the rat licking study
High quality parenting -> more glucocorticoid receptors -> low anxiety -> high quality parent next generation
Example of a gene associated with emotions
5HTTP Gene aka the serotonin transporter gene
Influences availability of serotonin through interaction with environment
The affective states that people ideally want to feel and try to attain
What is the biggest difference between fear and anxiety?
The elicitors of them. Fear is elicited by the known and certain. Anxiety is elicited by the unknown and uncertain
Negative emotion is considered less problematic in ____________ cultures than ___________ cultures
Idea that we become more startled in situations that are novel and unfamiliar rather than those that are familiar
Can we learn fear?
Yes! Think Little Albert.
Most common anxiolytics/tranquilizers (drugs that relieve anxiety) fall into a biochemical class known as....
Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain
Benzodiazepines facilitate the effectiveness of GABA. What are the consequences of this?
GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain so facilitating its effectiveness ultimately suppresses many other areas in the brain causing memory impairment, drowsiness, trouble recognizing facial expressions, etc.
___________ and other stress-related hormones increase the responsiveness of the amygdala, whereas ________ decreases it
Why is it that people who are double-jointed (i.e., have joint-laxity syndrome) are more likely to develop strong fears and anxiety related disorders?
The same genetic mutation may have a wide range of effects
Anxiety as a primary emotion
Literally feeling anxious
Anxiety as a secondary emotion
Feeling anxious about feeling a potential future emotion (i.e., embarrassment)
Anxiety as a cognition
Thinking about the future in a concerning and worrying way
Describe LeDoux's low road versus high road
The low road generates a rapid emotional response. We start with an emotional stimulus, information goes to sensory thalamus, then straight to the amygdala where an emotional response is generated.
The high road generates a more modulated emotional response with more information (i.e., context and memory) put into it. We start with an emotional stimulus, information goes to sensory thalamus, then to sensory cortex, then to amygdala.
What was the main finding of Morales et al's., study on attention bias in infants?
The more anxious mom was the more bias the infant had toward negative/threatening faces
Give an example of a "just right" behaviour and a repetitive behaviour
"just right" - shoes need to be placed this close to the door (things need to be a specific way)
Repetitive behaviour - continuously wanting to rewatch a movie, or bed time rituals
Two short alleles of the 5HTT serotonin transporter gene means what?
Increased risk of developing psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression
What is the general meaning of Erikson's stages?
Personality develops through 8 predetermined stages. During each stage a psychosocial crisis is experienced which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.
What is the general meaning of Freud's stages?
Personality development takes place during 5 psychosexual stages. If a child lacks proper nurturance during a stage they may become fixated at that stage
What is the general meaning of Sroufe's stages?
Development is organized around a series of issues each with an emotional core.