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Flashcards in Part 4 Deck (69)
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Why did research on happiness begin much later than research on "negative" emotions such as fear, anger, and depression?

1. Because psychologists spend most of their time trying to help people overcome/manage their anger, fear, and depression

2. Because happiness is difficult to define and measure


Happiness tends to qualify more as a _____ and less as a ______

trait; state


Researchers often refer to trait happiness as what?

Subjective well-being


What is the top-down versus bottom-up theory of happiness?

Top-down: personality determines your happiness

Bottom-up: life events determine your happiness


A meta-analysis of hundreds of twin studies has estimated the heritability of subjective well-being at around .40. What does this mean?

Means that around 40% of individual differences in happiness may be explained in terms of people's genes


It is easier to produce a long-term _____ in happiness than a long-term ______

decrease; increase


Although, in general, people in wealthier countries report higher life satisfaction, those in poor countries...

report greater purpose/meaning in life


Happiness ____ relationships and relationships ________ happiness

promote; increase


According to the broaden-and-build theory...

Positive emotions promote broadened attention so that we are more likely to notice opportunities in the environment as well as greater flexibility in the actions we might take to maximize these opportunities


What is an example of research that supports the broaden-and-build theory?

In one study, researchers found participants who had just viewed funny/contentment-inducing film chose options that biased their attention toward global features rather than details


Basic/discrete emotions theory suggests that...

emotions evolved to help solve specific kinds of problems related to adaptive fitness - they helped our ancestors increase the representation of their genes in future generations


Negative emotions are suggested to...

help us address threats to adaptive fitness


Positive emotions are suggested to...

help us respond to opportunities to enhance fitness presented by the environment


When do we experience enthusiasm?

When we look forward to a pleasurable experience


How does enthusiasm enhance adaptive fitness?

Motivates animals to have interest in actively pursuing rewards


Positive emotions...

1. Broaden attention
2. Increase reliance on heuristics in processing information


Although positive emotions tend to broaden attention, enthusiasm tends to...

promote a more local attention focus


Why does contentment slow cognitive activity down?

Because contentment elicits increased activation of parasympathetic nervous system (increase of blood flow to the stomach comes at the expense of blood flow to the brain)


______ is the strongest case for a basic positive emotion?



Two forms of pride

1. Authentic pride
2. Hubristic pride


Authentic pride

Earned by one's actions


Hubristic pride

Emerges from people's belief that they are naturally better than others


Many psychologists consider _____ an attitude instead of an emotion



If love is an emotion, its social function has to do with...

building and maintaining close relationships


Researchers have proposed the function of awe and amusement as...

the opportunity of learning


What is Lazarus' core relational theme of happiness?

Progress toward a goal


What is the paradoxical effects of pursuing happiness?

Basically, if your goal is happiness you will become frustrated. Happiness is a by-product


What is the difference between empathy and sympathy?

Empathy is when you understand what someone else is feeling and feel a similar way whereas sympathy is when you feel compassion for someone else but not the same emotion as them


What is the positivity ratio?

A certain amount of negative emotion is healthy when in balance with a certain amount of positive emotion

3:1 has been deemed good
2:1 is what we usually experience
1:1 is what those with depression usually feel


What is a popular hypothesis as to why adolescents are more risky and experience heightened emotions?

The prefrontal cortex is not fully developed


Children who were highly impulsive at age 7...

were three times more likely to become problem gamblers in adulthood


As we age from young adulthood to old age...

anxiety tends to decrease and anger is felt less often and less intensely


On average, people over 70 years age report...

the highest subjective well-being


Niche picking

A reason as to why siblings can be so different from each other.

It is a natural progression to fit into the family in the empty spaces

i.e., first child may be super outgoing, second child might also be outgoing but find a slightly different niche so like maybe a different way to express it


Although conflict occurs 3 to 15 times per hour in the first five years...

conflicts are opportunities (practice moments)


Nearing the end of the first five years, self-conscious emotions become set in place and...

children are sent to school


What is the underlying concern of early childhood versus middle childhood?

Early childhood:
- Maximize excitement, entertainment, and emotional levels through play

Middle childhood:
- Peer inclusion, avoid rejection, self-presentation


What is the salient conversational process in friendship in early childhood versus middle childhood?

Early childhood:
- Play coordination, conflict resolution

Middle childhood
- Gossip


What are the emotional developments in early childhood versus middle childhood?

Early childhood:
- Manage arousal in interpersonal interactions

Middle childhood:
- Acquire display rules


What are the two ways in which friendships form?

1. Selection effects

2. Socialization effects



A dark side to friendships

Extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems

Can increase relationship closeness but can also lead to empathetic distress


Dishion's deviancy training study found that...

rule-breaking talk was reinforced by laughing


In a risk taking study using a driving paradigm...

adolescents in a group demonstrated the most risky driving

young adults were also more risky driving when in a group than compared to alone


Adolescents high in depressive symptoms tend to have partners high in depressive symptoms. What is this an example of?

Selection effects


What do Baumrind's parenting styles look at?

Looks at how responsive the parent is to the child's needs AND how demanding the parent is of the child's behaviour


In general there are three ways in which parents can participate in child's socialization of emotions:

1. Parents' own expression and regulation
2. Parents' reactions to children's emotions
3. Parents' coaching and discussing of children's emotions


Parental meta-emotion philosophy

Parents differ along two dimensions - how they feel about their own emotions and how they feel about their child's emotions


Dismissing meta-emotion philosophy (aka dismissing emotions as valuable)

"Anger is from the devil, I don't think people should ever express it"

"I cannot afford to be sad"

"What could a child possibly be sad about"


Embracing meta-emotion philosophy (aka emotion coaching)

"I see you are angry, is there anything else you might be feeling?"

"When I feel sad sometimes I do this..."


What are some observations in the family that impact emotion socialization?

1. Modelling
2. Social referencing
3. Emotion contagion


What are some parenting practices that impact emotion socialization?

1. Meta-emotion philosophy
2. Reactions to emotions


What are some aspects of the emotional climate of family that impact emotion socialization?

1. Attachment/parenting style
2. Marital relations
3. Expressivity


What are three ways to "mess up" your kid

1. Prepare child for world that does not exist
2. Repeat negative experiences consistently
3. Be inconsistent


With regard to a depressed parent's socialization of a child, what are some characteristics of parent and what are some characteristics of the child?

- Negative
- Disengaged
- Flat facial affect
- Unpredictable
- Sensitive to stressors

- Poor attachment
- Poor interpretation of affect (and reduced social skills)
- Stress
- Internalizing blame


Social learning theory states...

it is through reinforcement and punishment that children learn


Positive reinforcement

The presentation of a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behaviour


Negative reinforcement

The removal of a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behaviour



Any action that suppresses or decreases a behaviour


The cycle of coercion does two things:

1. Worsens children's behaviour
2. Decreases parental control


In one study looking at if mothers of typically-developing children versus aggressive children differ in their overall responses to their children's negative emotions, what were the main findings?

Groups do not differ in the frequency of supportive regulation provided, child negative emotion, and child positive emotions

For mothers of typically developing children - maternal supportive responses were more contingent (synced up in terms of timing) to the child's negative emotion = successful regulation, stop negative emotion

For mothers of aggressive children - maternal supportive responses were LESS contingent (less synced up in terms of timing) to the child's negative emotion = less successful regulation, less likely to transition out of negative emotion


Essentialist mindset

AKA fixed
Intelligence/emotion is static
People with this mindset usually do not persevere


Constructivist mindset

AKA growth
Intelligence/emotion can develop


Cognitive distortions

Appraisals that have become easy to enact
They interfere with our practice of socio-emotional well-being


How can we reinforce our practice of socio-emotional well-being?

Focusing on present, only thinking about future sometimes
Take risk and allow for failure once in a while
Strive and accept
Realize you are not alone - baseline is social


What is the social function of gratitude?

To find, remind, and bind. Encourages people to act warmer to others and act in prosocial ways.


What is the social function of joy?

Capitalization (disclosing positive events to close others)
Enhances relationships


What is the social function of pride?

Enhances relationships
Too much self-pride (hubris) can turn people away but sharing pride with others is a social function


What is the social function of interest?

Initiate and build relationships


What is the social function of amusement/ laughter?

Social rewards and social bonds