Flashcards in Part 4 Deck (69)
Why did research on happiness begin much later than research on "negative" emotions such as fear, anger, and depression?
1. Because psychologists spend most of their time trying to help people overcome/manage their anger, fear, and depression
2. Because happiness is difficult to define and measure
Happiness tends to qualify more as a _____ and less as a ______
Researchers often refer to trait happiness as what?
What is the top-down versus bottom-up theory of happiness?
Top-down: personality determines your happiness
Bottom-up: life events determine your happiness
A meta-analysis of hundreds of twin studies has estimated the heritability of subjective well-being at around .40. What does this mean?
Means that around 40% of individual differences in happiness may be explained in terms of people's genes
It is easier to produce a long-term _____ in happiness than a long-term ______
Although, in general, people in wealthier countries report higher life satisfaction, those in poor countries...
report greater purpose/meaning in life
Happiness ____ relationships and relationships ________ happiness
According to the broaden-and-build theory...
Positive emotions promote broadened attention so that we are more likely to notice opportunities in the environment as well as greater flexibility in the actions we might take to maximize these opportunities
What is an example of research that supports the broaden-and-build theory?
In one study, researchers found participants who had just viewed funny/contentment-inducing film chose options that biased their attention toward global features rather than details
Basic/discrete emotions theory suggests that...
emotions evolved to help solve specific kinds of problems related to adaptive fitness - they helped our ancestors increase the representation of their genes in future generations
Negative emotions are suggested to...
help us address threats to adaptive fitness
Positive emotions are suggested to...
help us respond to opportunities to enhance fitness presented by the environment
When do we experience enthusiasm?
When we look forward to a pleasurable experience
How does enthusiasm enhance adaptive fitness?
Motivates animals to have interest in actively pursuing rewards
1. Broaden attention
2. Increase reliance on heuristics in processing information
Although positive emotions tend to broaden attention, enthusiasm tends to...
promote a more local attention focus
Why does contentment slow cognitive activity down?
Because contentment elicits increased activation of parasympathetic nervous system (increase of blood flow to the stomach comes at the expense of blood flow to the brain)
______ is the strongest case for a basic positive emotion?
Two forms of pride
1. Authentic pride
2. Hubristic pride
Earned by one's actions
Emerges from people's belief that they are naturally better than others
Many psychologists consider _____ an attitude instead of an emotion
If love is an emotion, its social function has to do with...
building and maintaining close relationships
Researchers have proposed the function of awe and amusement as...
the opportunity of learning
What is Lazarus' core relational theme of happiness?
Progress toward a goal
What is the paradoxical effects of pursuing happiness?
Basically, if your goal is happiness you will become frustrated. Happiness is a by-product
What is the difference between empathy and sympathy?
Empathy is when you understand what someone else is feeling and feel a similar way whereas sympathy is when you feel compassion for someone else but not the same emotion as them
What is the positivity ratio?
A certain amount of negative emotion is healthy when in balance with a certain amount of positive emotion
3:1 has been deemed good
2:1 is what we usually experience
1:1 is what those with depression usually feel
What is a popular hypothesis as to why adolescents are more risky and experience heightened emotions?
The prefrontal cortex is not fully developed
Children who were highly impulsive at age 7...
were three times more likely to become problem gamblers in adulthood
As we age from young adulthood to old age...
anxiety tends to decrease and anger is felt less often and less intensely
On average, people over 70 years age report...
the highest subjective well-being
A reason as to why siblings can be so different from each other.
It is a natural progression to fit into the family in the empty spaces
i.e., first child may be super outgoing, second child might also be outgoing but find a slightly different niche so like maybe a different way to express it
Although conflict occurs 3 to 15 times per hour in the first five years...
conflicts are opportunities (practice moments)
Nearing the end of the first five years, self-conscious emotions become set in place and...
children are sent to school
What is the underlying concern of early childhood versus middle childhood?
- Maximize excitement, entertainment, and emotional levels through play
- Peer inclusion, avoid rejection, self-presentation
What is the salient conversational process in friendship in early childhood versus middle childhood?
- Play coordination, conflict resolution
What are the emotional developments in early childhood versus middle childhood?
- Manage arousal in interpersonal interactions
- Acquire display rules
What are the two ways in which friendships form?
1. Selection effects
2. Socialization effects
A dark side to friendships
Extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems
Can increase relationship closeness but can also lead to empathetic distress
Dishion's deviancy training study found that...
rule-breaking talk was reinforced by laughing
In a risk taking study using a driving paradigm...
adolescents in a group demonstrated the most risky driving
young adults were also more risky driving when in a group than compared to alone
Adolescents high in depressive symptoms tend to have partners high in depressive symptoms. What is this an example of?
What do Baumrind's parenting styles look at?
Looks at how responsive the parent is to the child's needs AND how demanding the parent is of the child's behaviour
In general there are three ways in which parents can participate in child's socialization of emotions:
1. Parents' own expression and regulation
2. Parents' reactions to children's emotions
3. Parents' coaching and discussing of children's emotions
Parental meta-emotion philosophy
Parents differ along two dimensions - how they feel about their own emotions and how they feel about their child's emotions
Dismissing meta-emotion philosophy (aka dismissing emotions as valuable)
"Anger is from the devil, I don't think people should ever express it"
"I cannot afford to be sad"
"What could a child possibly be sad about"
Embracing meta-emotion philosophy (aka emotion coaching)
"I see you are angry, is there anything else you might be feeling?"
"When I feel sad sometimes I do this..."
What are some observations in the family that impact emotion socialization?
2. Social referencing
3. Emotion contagion
What are some parenting practices that impact emotion socialization?
1. Meta-emotion philosophy
2. Reactions to emotions
What are some aspects of the emotional climate of family that impact emotion socialization?
1. Attachment/parenting style
2. Marital relations
What are three ways to "mess up" your kid
1. Prepare child for world that does not exist
2. Repeat negative experiences consistently
3. Be inconsistent
With regard to a depressed parent's socialization of a child, what are some characteristics of parent and what are some characteristics of the child?
- Flat facial affect
- Sensitive to stressors
- Poor attachment
- Poor interpretation of affect (and reduced social skills)
- Internalizing blame
Social learning theory states...
it is through reinforcement and punishment that children learn
The presentation of a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behaviour
The removal of a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behaviour
Any action that suppresses or decreases a behaviour
The cycle of coercion does two things:
1. Worsens children's behaviour
2. Decreases parental control
In one study looking at if mothers of typically-developing children versus aggressive children differ in their overall responses to their children's negative emotions, what were the main findings?
Groups do not differ in the frequency of supportive regulation provided, child negative emotion, and child positive emotions
For mothers of typically developing children - maternal supportive responses were more contingent (synced up in terms of timing) to the child's negative emotion = successful regulation, stop negative emotion
For mothers of aggressive children - maternal supportive responses were LESS contingent (less synced up in terms of timing) to the child's negative emotion = less successful regulation, less likely to transition out of negative emotion
Intelligence/emotion is static
People with this mindset usually do not persevere
Intelligence/emotion can develop
Appraisals that have become easy to enact
They interfere with our practice of socio-emotional well-being
How can we reinforce our practice of socio-emotional well-being?
Focusing on present, only thinking about future sometimes
Take risk and allow for failure once in a while
Strive and accept
Realize you are not alone - baseline is social
What is the social function of gratitude?
To find, remind, and bind. Encourages people to act warmer to others and act in prosocial ways.
What is the social function of joy?
Capitalization (disclosing positive events to close others)
What is the social function of pride?
Too much self-pride (hubris) can turn people away but sharing pride with others is a social function
What is the social function of interest?
Initiate and build relationships