Flashcards in Part 3 Short Answer Questions Deck (8)
Why are self-conscious emotions sometimes called appraisal emotions?
Because internalized standards, rules, and goals must be evaluated (i.e., when they are violated, I feel this when they are adhered to, I feel this)
Describe Michael Lewis' model
Evaluate standards, rules, and goals by assessing whether they have been adhered (success) to or violated (fail) AND whether they globally attributed or specifically attributed to the self.
Discuss three similarities and three differences of shame and guilt
Similarities - motivate compliance with rules & standards; facial expressions; important for socialization
Differences - shame is a global attribution of self whereas guilt is a specific attribution of self; shame is associated with anger and withdrawal whereas guilt is associated with prosocial; shame is associated with a concern about others' evaluation of self whereas guilt is associated with a concern about one's effect on others
Describe Gross' process model and list an ER strategy that can be implemented during each area
Gross' process model proposes that the emotion generation process lines up with the emotion regulation sequence.
First we choose a situation, then we focus on certain aspects of that situation, next we generate meaning from it, and finally we have an emotional response.
Situation modification is a strategy that can be implemented at the situation phase.
Distraction is a strategy that can be implemented at the attentional deployment phase.
Reappraisal is a strategy that can be implemented at the cognition phase.
Suppression is a strategy that can be implemented at the emotion response phase.
Researchers found that those with high depression tend to use reappraisal in situations in which they have high control. Why is this problematic?
Thinking that things aren't as bad as they seem may reduce a person's motivation to attempt to improve the situation
Provide an example for when it would be best to use a situation-focused strategy, a cognition-focused strategy, and a response-focused strategy
Situation modification is a situation-focused strategy that can be used when entering a situation that you aren't looking forward to. For example, going to a dinner with your coworkers for the first time may be anxiety provoking but by modifying the situation by staying open and engaging in enjoyable conversations.
Reappraisal is a cognition-focused strategy that can be used when you have little control over a situation. For example, if you have a stressful and challenging interview coming up that you are nervous for you can try to look at it in a more positive way by thinking "this will be good experience for my future endeavours"
Catharsis/engaging in expressive emotion is a response-focused strategy that can be used when feeling strong emotion. This could be done by journalling when feeling really upset about something. Or it could be done with a therapist - crying and letting your feelings out.
Give an example of tactics that have a direct impact on the three different components of emotion
Relaxation has a direct impact on the physiological component of emotion
Suppression has a direct impact on the behavioural expression component of emotion
Reappraisal has a direct impact on the cognitive component of emotion