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James-Lange theory

Event -> Physiological Response -> Subjective Experience (feeling)

Emotional feelings are based directly on the way the body reacts to certain situations

Every emotion is unique because they are all slightly different combinations of physiological responses


Cannon-Bard theory

Emotional cognitions and feelings are causally independent of physiological arousal and behaviour although these aspects all occur at the same time


Schachter-Singer Theory

Two-factor theory

Physiological arousal determines intensity but not specific emotional state

We use context to understand what is going on and which emotional state we are experiencing


What are the four criteria that should comprise an emotion if it is basic?

1. Universal (apparent across cultures and to some extent among other species)

2. Functional to a specific prototypical life event

3. Distinct, innate way of expressing it

4. Evident in early life

5. Physiologically distinct


Which theory is the basic/discrete emotion model most closely aligned with?

James-Lange theory


Describe the circumplex model

Emotional feelings form a circle defined by the dimensions of pleasantness and arousal

Places emphasis on the feeling aspect of emotion


Using the circumplex model, excitement can be described as...

a combination of pleasure and high arousal


Using the circumplex model, contentment can be described as...

a combination of pleasure and low arousal


Core affect

The feeling aspect of emotion in terms of pleasantness and arousal


Describe the evaluative space model

Positive and negative feelings are independent dimensions and can still coexist


What are three points of agreement among the dimensional models (i.e., the circumplex model and evaluative space model)?

1. They emphasize the feeling aspect of emotion

2. They agree that emotional feelings are best described in terms of continuous dimensions rather than discrete categories

3. They emphasize that feelings are mainly defined in terms of valence (positive and negative) and degree of arousal


The component process model

Same set of appraisal dimensions (i.e., novelty, pleasantness, certainty, etc.) used to evaluate the significance of every event we experience


Emotion as a latent process

We see emotions through physiological responses, behavioural responses, cognitive responses, and feeling states

Emotions exist and are reflected out to the world


Emotion as an emergent process

Emotions are the product of physiology, behaviour, cognition, and feelings


If some characteristic is proposed as an adaptation that does not mean that it is functional now. The characteristic would have been functional in its...

environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA)


Environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA)

The time and place when a certain characteristic spread as a result of natural selection


How might emotional responses be considered by-products of natural selection?

Emotional responses are more likely to be byproducts of responses that promoted survival and reproduction.

Ex; an emotional response such as cuteness towards baby animals is most likely a by product of responses that prompt caring for our offspring


Intrapersonal functions of emotions

Directly benefits individual

ex; fear facilitates individual to escape

Many negative emotions can be explained by intrapersonal function


Emotions serve important social functions. Love an embarrassment have something in common...

they both help to establish and stabilize relationships with other people


The affect infusion model states that...

emotional feelings influence our judgements and decisions

i.e., people in good moods are often on autopilot whereas people in bad moods are more critical


According to Jeffery Gray, the brain includes two systems that is the functional core of emotional responding

Behavioural activation system
- Promotes approaching opportunities

Behavioural inhibition system
- Promotes threat detection and avoidance


Tooby and Cosmides define emotions as...

superordinate neural programs


What does it mean to think of emotions as having a phylogeny/ evolutionary tree of their own?

Thinking that newer emotions evolved from more archaic ones in response to new selection pressures


According to Tooby and Cosmides, emotion is a ____________ program that coordinates many ___________. How does this work exactly?

superordinate; subprograms (i.e., facial affect)

Basically, emotion acts as an organizing program that coordinates one's behaviour and actions to solve problems


What are Darwin's two functions of emotion expression?

1. Adaptation
- emotion as a cue
- physiological regulation

2. Exaptation
- social communication
- convey information to others


Two branches of the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic and parasympathetic


Sympathetic nervous system

Fight or flight
Increases heart rate, breathing rate, sweating, and blood flow to muscles
Dilates pupils


Parasympathetic nervous system

Rest and digest
Increases salvation, digestion
Decreases heart rate, breathing


What is the benefit of the combined input of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems? What is an analogy for this?

More precise control

The gas pedal and brake analogy


The endocrine system

Glands and hormones combined


What two hormones play central roles in our responses to stress?

Epinephrine (aka adrenaline) and cortisol


What are some ways to measure physiological aspects of emotion?

Heart rate
- avg interbeat interval

Pupil diameter
- eye-tracking

Electrodermal activity
- changes in how well skin conducts electricity
- detects increased sweat gland activity


Pure autonomic failure

Medical condition in which the autonomic system ceases to influence the body

These people report the same type of emotions but feel them less intensely


Undoing effect of positive emotion

Positive emotions can help people recover after an intense negative emotion, physiologically as well as emotionally


General Adaption Syndrome

The body's reaction to any threat

Now known as "stress"


What are the three states that the body progresses through in response to threat according to the general adaptation syndrome?

- Activated sympathetic system

- Moderate arousal maintained

- Prolonged + severe threat
- Weakness, fatigue


Why does severe or long-term stress weaken the immune system?

Prolonged cortisol elevation leaves less energy available for the synthesis of proteins that the immune system needs


Why does severe or long-term stress impair functioning in the prefrontal cortex and strengthen activity in the amygdala and striatum (learned habits)?

Cortisol causes shrinkages of dendrites and loss of synapses in the prefrontal cortex

Cortisol expands dendrites and increases synapses in the amygdala and striatum


Psychological stress is also known as...

perceived stress


Psychological stress comes from three components:

1. Lack of control
2. Lack of predictability
3. Lack of outlets for frustration


Homeostasis implies what?

Systems have one optimal set point of functioning


We refrain from talking about homeostasis and instead talk about systems in terms of ________




No fixed point
Maintenance of stability through change


Allostaic load

Meant for short-term adaptations because it is costly in the long-run

Basically, how much pressure is on the systems to get you out of a jam


According to Hans Selye stress is a ________ response because...

undifferentiated response

because it does not have any specificity to the occasion


What does HPA axis stand for?

Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenals


The HPA axis is...

all throughout the body

involved in a lot of the stress response that we generate

a feedback loop


Chronic use of the axis makes things become distorted. What causes chronic use of the axis? Why do things become distorted?

Chronic stress causes chronic use of the axis

Chronic stress means increased cortisol release


Describe the relationship between the parasympathetic nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system, and the HPA axis

The parasympathetic system is the first to react

The withdrawal of the parasympathetic nervous system allows for the sympathetic nervous system to become activated

If parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system changes persist and they cannot deal with the even on its own, then HPA kicks in


The central nervous system is defined as...

the brain and spinal cord


Limitations when conducting research on damaged human brains

Damage generally overlaps in several brain areas

Brain damage doesn't always occur for people at random - an aspect of the person with damage may have caused this damage thus this individual's brain is not really generalizable

Damage almost never hits exactly the area researchers want to study


What methods are used to study emotion in the brain?

Brain damage
Electroencephalography (EEG)
Neurochemistry techniques (optogenetics)


The reverse inference problem

Just because A has been shown to cause B does not mean that if B is present so is A


People whose brain damage includes the amygdala can classify photos as pleasant or unpleasant but show little to no arousal when they view unpleasant photos. What does this suggest?

These people show the cognitive aspect of emotion but not the feeling aspect


Some people show stronger amygdala responses than others and the differences correlate with ________ in daily life



Amygdala activation is modulated by other brain regions that may be involved in appraisal such as...

the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex


What is the relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala?

People with weaker prefrontal cortex regions (i.e., those with depression) tend toward more anxiety inducing interpretations and they show less inhibition of amygdala activity


What is the relationship between the cingulate cortex and the amygdala?

People with stronger connections between amygdala and cingulate cortex tend to pay more attention than average to threatening stimuli


What is the relationship between amygdala and memory?

We remember things better if they hold emotional significance

The amygdala has been suggested to mediate attention to emotional stimuli and enhancement of emotional memories


The limbic system

Contains structures such as the amygdala, hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, etc.


The limbic system "freed" species from the tyranny of the hypothalamus which promotes...



Hypothalamus is considered the...

internal regulator


Why is the amygdala not very plastic?

Because it develops early


The frontal cortex is the most recent thing that has developed so...

it is very plastic


What are the three phases of synaptic growth?

- Make a lot of synapses, TONS

- Don't want all connections to do the same thing, lets make some responsible for this and some responsible for that

- Pruning back what is not needed


What are the three phases of synaptic growth?

- Make a lot of synapses, TONS

- Don't want all connections to do the same thing, lets make some responsible for this and some responsible for that

- Pruning back what is not needed
- What fires together wires together


________ develops first then _______ shape's ________

Structure; function; structure



a cognitive evaluation of what a stimulus or situation means for the self


Primary versus secondary appraisal

Primary appraisal
- Determine one's emotional response
- How does the situation matter for one's goals and well-being

Secondary appraisal
- Evaluating their ability to cope with situation and regulate emotions


Aside from liking, ______ is another response that does not require appraisal according to researchers



What is Lazarus' core relational theme for anger?

A demeaning offense against me and mine


Cognitive neoassociationistic model

Any unpleasant event or sensation facilitates anger and aggressive behaviour

This proposal contradicts the idea that anger requires attribution (appraisal)

Ex; being too hot, feeling crowded, having a headache, etc., provokes anger without appraisal required


Facial feedback hypothesis

Facial expressions and other nonverbal behaviours may not be necessary for feelings of emotions but they could still help create such feelings

Think... the study in which participants held a pen with their teeth (forcing them to smile) and they found the comics more amusing than those who held the pencil with their lips (forcing them not to smile)


Emotion was once referred to as....



What are Ekman's 6 basic emotions? What is the added 7th?

Anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise

7th - interest


James Russel took a continuous dimensional approach to emotions...

can situate any emotional state with regard to their degree of valence (positive and negative) and degree of arousal (activated and deactivated)

Draw this


Lang took the same idea as Russel - took a continuous dimensional approach to emotions...

axis is rotated and emotion fall along vectors.

Some things are appetitive (going towards something)
Some things are based on defence (withdrawing)

As you start increasing pleasantness or unpleasantness you are bound to increase arousal

Draw this


What is Lisa Feldman Barrett's view on emotion?

"Basic emotions" is a flawed idea

Offers a constructivist view

Emotions are concepts that we socially construct

Your brain's prediction about the state of your metabolic energy
- when this prediction is challenged we experience emotion and body must respond and react


The basic emotion theory has a ________ view

latent (essentialist)


Theory of constructive emotion has an _______ view

emergent (constructivist)