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Self-conscious emotions require a set of internalized...

1. Standards; 2. Rules; 3. Goals


Self-conscious emotions are sometimes called...

appraisal emotions


According to Michael Lewis' model, what does a 'global attribution of self' mean?

It refers to the whole self.

"This success (or failure) occurred because of who I am"


According to Michael Lewis' model, what does a 'specific attribution of self' mean?

It is specific to the particular behaviour.

"This success (or failure) occurred because of the conditions at the time"


What are the functions of embarrassment?

- Communicative (I don't want to stand out, I don't think i am better than you)

- Elicits empathy, concern, & positive evaluations from others


Exposure embarrassment

Suddenly being in the eye of many people or even certain people
Develops quite early (around 15 months)


Evaluative embarrassment

Done something that you feel embarrassment about
Has all features of shame but is a bit more mild
Develops later than exposure embarrassment


Identify some transitions occurring between 18 and 24 months

- Individuation (growing sense of self)
- Egocentrism + symbolic play
- Use of emotion words
- Self-talk
- Realizations of self versus others


What is theory of mind and when does it develop?

Inference about others' mental states
Develops between the ages of 3 to 5


Identify some transitions occurring between ages 3 and 4

- Use language to reveal internal states
- Can intentionally regulate others' states
- Can learn rules
- Differentiation of self from others
- Conscious of wider spans of time (past and future)


What is the role of shame in the relation between peer victimization and mental health outcomes

Shame is a mediator. Basically, youth who experience more shame are more likely to continue victimization and also more likely to have higher depressive, social anxiety, and externalization symptoms


Shame can be tightly coupled with ________



Self conscious emotions develop as a result of...

1. Understanding self versus other
2. Cognitive ability to appraise evaluations


Embarrassment, shame, and guilt reflect the belief that...

we have done something wrong


Thompson's definition of emotion regulation

extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions especially their intensive and temporal features to accomplish one's goals


Emotions as regulating

Fear regulates action tendencies
One person's emotions can regulate another's (i.e., child's emotion influences caregivers)


Emotions as regulated

Activated emotion has changed due to some process


Strategy accounts of emotion regulation

Arousal part of emotion is separate from the regulation part
Aka two-factor models


Process accounts of emotion regulation

Arousal part of emotion is NOT separate from the regulation part
Aka functionalist perspective


James Gross came up with this model...

Modal model (now known as process model)


Briefly define Gross' model

Emotion generation process is lined up with emotion regulation sequence.
Start by choosing a situation, then choosing among different circumstances within situation, focus on certain aspects, generate meaning from it, have emotional response


Closely related term to emotion regulation



What is the distinction between emotion regulation and coping according to the textbook?

Coping is always an attempt to reduce negative emotion, whereas emotion regulation may include trying to increase or decrease positive emotion, or even trying to increase negative emotion if it seems appropriate and helpful at the time.


Vaillant suggested that Freud's ego defence mechanisms could be organized into FOUR categories that reflect different stages of maturity as well as differing effects on psychological and life outcomes.

1. Psychotic defences
2. Immature defences
3. Neurotic defences
4. Mature defences


Psychotic defences

i.e., denial
Most common in young children
Indicate trauma or psychopathology in adults
Temporary fix


Immature defences

i.e., fantasy and projection
Typical of adolescents


Neurotic defences

i.e., displacement, repression, reaction formation
Temporary fix
Mostly unconscious
Common in adults - are socially acceptable


Mature defences

i.e., suppression
Proposed to be healthiest because they lead to prosocial and constructive behaviour


Situation-focused strategies

- Choosing situations wisely
- Changing the situation


Cognitive-focused strategies

- Attentional control
- Cognitive re-appraisal


Response-focused strategies

- Suppression
- Catharsis
- Exercise
- Relaxation


What were the 2 hypotheses that the 5 studies discussed in lecture tested?

1. People differ in their use of ER strategies reappraisal and suppression
2. These individual differences have implications for affect, well-being, and social relations


What were the major findings from the 5 studies discussed in lecture?

1. Men suppressed their emotions more than women
2. European-Americans used less suppression
3. Suppression is associated with less support and lower quality relationships
4. Re-appraisal associated with better well-being and suppression associated with lower well-being


Haine's et al., found that those with high depression....

Re-appraise in situations in which they have high-control and don't use re-appraisal as much in situations which they don't have control.

This is not beneficial. Same pattern was found for those with high anxiety, stress, etc.


When is suppression beneficial?

Superior performers suppressing positive emotion can be beneficial and cause people to view them more favourably


What is a strategy?

A plan (i.e., suppression, re-appraisal, etc.)


What is a tactic?

More direct than strategies and involves taking action.


Give an example of 6 ER tactics

1. Distraction
2. Rumination
3. Re-appraisal
4. Relaxation
5. Expressive engagement
6. Expressive suppression


Briefly describe the main findings of Hollenstein and DeFrance study

- Three groups each consisting of participants with a similar repertoire: suppression propensity, expression propensity, and multi-strategy group

- Wanted to see whether the patterns of strategies that people used were more important than the individual strategies used

- Those in the expression and multi-strategy group were generally doing better


What is the "clinicians illusion"?

Generalizing from patients to non-clinical populations (i.e., pathologizing all emotions, pathologizing adolescence)


Allen and Nelson proposed that there are multiple regulatory systems with multiple regulatory targets that change across development. What does this mean?

There is an emotional state (i.e., anger), psychological goals (i.e., autonomy), and interpersonal goals (i.e., peer status).

For example, youth may go out to do risky things to regulate their interpersonal goal of peer status


What did Hollenstein and DeFrance find in regard to re-appraisal and relationship quality AND suppression and relationship quality

1. Re-appraisal is positively associated with relationship quality as age increases (when an adult)

2. Suppression is positively associated with relationship quality in young groups and (early adolescence and young adulthood)


With regard to ER, what does it mean that what fires together wires together?

Whatever is practiced will develop


How is it that co-regulation leads to self-regulation?

Co-regulation provides context for child's brain and body to realize that emotional outputs are controllable


Contrast benefit approach and deficit approach

Benefit approach - wellbeing is enhanced by more/better relationships. Stress manifestation is minimized in the face of threat when a close other is around.

Deficit approach - fewer/poor relationships diminish functioning. We start with a baseline (stress manifestations occurring in the presence of a close other)


Social baseline basically says that...

Hills are perceived as steeper, distances as farther when fatigued, less physically fit, stressed, or in a low mood.
In the presence of a close other hills seem less steep, distances less far, etc.


Social relationships conserve energy through...

1. Risk distribution
2. Load sharing


Risk distribution

Distribution of risks among members of group (i.e., safety in numbers)


Load sharing

Trust and interdependence with close others


Our baseline is social, so the human brain...

Expects access to relationships & assumes proximity to relationships


One study manipulated the amount of social contact during a threatening situation in which a mild shock may or may not be delivered to the participant. What did they find?

Partner handholding was able to minimize more stress manifestations relative to the no handholding condition and the stranger handholding condition


Briefly describe the main findings of the "Load sharing in mother infant dyads" study

Infant exhibited higher behavioural avoidance when mom faced negative evaluation.

Infant demonstrated similar pattern of arousal as mother who endured negative evaluation.

These findings suggest that load sharing occurs early in development


Briefly describe the main findings of the "Load sharing in mother daughter dyads in adolescence" study

Researchers wondered if they would see load sharing during this time in development in which there is a high degree of closeness as well as a high degree of conflict

In the hand touching condition, relationship quality didn't matter - stress was being regulated

In the no hand touching condition, high relationship quality regulated stress BUT low relationship quality stress stayed the same and stayed high


Briefly describe the main findings of the the study on digital emotion regulation

Researchers wondered whether digital support was as sufficient as in-person support

They found that both fostered successful regulation of emotions AND that digital support was equally likely to be utilized when alone and when not alone


Social baseline theory is based on the premise that...

Humans evolved to be around other humans

SO, our baseline is fundamentally social


Researchers sometimes distinguish among three types of negative emotion, each of which can be elicited by some sort of violation:

1. Anger
2. Disgust
3. Contempt


Hostile aggression versus instrumental aggression

Hostile aggression is motivated by anger with the specific intent to hurt someone whereas instrumental aggression is harmful/threatening behaviour used to obtain something or achieve some goal


Much of human aggression is ___________



What is the value of anger?

Anger communicates irritation and feelings of hurt so that people can apologize, understand you better, and avoid similar acts in the future


People with damage to this area of the brain are impaired at suppressing their emotional expressions

Prefrontal cortex


Hostile people who express anger frequently and explosively are more vulnerable to...

cardiovascular problems


_____ is more likely than ____ to involve a sense of agency and control

anger; fear


According to Lazarus, the core relational theme of anger is...

a demeaning offence against me and mine


According to Lazarus, sadness is a response to...

irrevocable loss


What is the value of sadness?

Sad behaviour brings other people to us and elicits their sympathy and concern


Research has suggested that when people are in a sad mood...

they process information more carefully and systematically


When standards, rules, and goals are violated we experience...

shame, guilt, and/or embarrassment


When standards, rules, and goals are adhered to we experience...

pride and/or hubris


_______-prone people tend to have more problems with relationships than _______-prone people

shame; guilt


What is the objective of Gross' process model?

To help researchers classify emotion regulation strategies according to when they take place in the emotion process


When you have little to no control over a situation what are the best strategies?

Distraction or reappraisal


Anger is elicited by what kind of violation?

Violation of autonomy


Disgust is elicited by what kind of violation?

Violation of purity


Contempt is elicited by what kind of violation?

Violation of community standards


During most negative emotions the _____ hemisphere of the frontal cortex is more active and is associated with ________ motivation

right; avoidance


During most positive emotions the _____ hemisphere of the frontal cortex is more active and is associated with ________ motivation

left; approach


Transdiagnostic perspective

Poor emotion regulation is a vulnerability factor underlying the development of most psychopathology



Antisocial, aggression, poor impulse control, overactivity, etc.



Anxiety, depression, withdrawal, etc.


4 domains that are considered transdiagnostic:

1. Low emotional awareness
2. Emotional inhibition

3. Dysregulation expression
4. Emotion regulation


Low emotional awareness is associated with...

internalizing symptoms for sadness and anger


Emotional inhibition is associated with...

internalizing symptoms for anger


Dysregulation expression is associated with...

internalizing symptoms for sadness and anger

externalizing symptoms for sadness


Emotion regulation is associated with...

internalizing and externalizing symptoms


Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated a low response were also deemed...

well-regulated/ well-adjusted


Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated a regulated response were also deemed...



Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated an unregulated response also demonstrated...

conduct problems


Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated a moderate response and expression were also deemed...

socially competent


Granic and Lougheed argued that anxiety is primary and aggression is secondary. What does this mean?

Something makes you anxious (i.e., lack of control & lack of certainty) so you regulate this anxiety by taking control (i.e., aggression)


What were the 3 hypotheses proposed by Granic and Lougheed in regard to the connection between anxiety and aggression?

1. Unpredictable parenting
2. Aggression as anxiety regulation

3. Targeting anxiety will alter the aggressive outcome


Give an example of psychopathology being a risk factor for poor ER

Those with depression experience a lot of negative emotion so they may turn to an unhealthy amount of suppression



Getting "stuck" in emotional states
AKA emotional inertia


Emotional rigidity is associated with

future depression