Flashcards in Part 3 Deck (93)
Self-conscious emotions require a set of internalized...
1. Standards; 2. Rules; 3. Goals
Self-conscious emotions are sometimes called...
According to Michael Lewis' model, what does a 'global attribution of self' mean?
It refers to the whole self.
"This success (or failure) occurred because of who I am"
According to Michael Lewis' model, what does a 'specific attribution of self' mean?
It is specific to the particular behaviour.
"This success (or failure) occurred because of the conditions at the time"
What are the functions of embarrassment?
- Communicative (I don't want to stand out, I don't think i am better than you)
- Elicits empathy, concern, & positive evaluations from others
Suddenly being in the eye of many people or even certain people
Develops quite early (around 15 months)
Done something that you feel embarrassment about
Has all features of shame but is a bit more mild
Develops later than exposure embarrassment
Identify some transitions occurring between 18 and 24 months
- Individuation (growing sense of self)
- Egocentrism + symbolic play
- Use of emotion words
- Realizations of self versus others
What is theory of mind and when does it develop?
Inference about others' mental states
Develops between the ages of 3 to 5
Identify some transitions occurring between ages 3 and 4
- Use language to reveal internal states
- Can intentionally regulate others' states
- Can learn rules
- Differentiation of self from others
- Conscious of wider spans of time (past and future)
What is the role of shame in the relation between peer victimization and mental health outcomes
Shame is a mediator. Basically, youth who experience more shame are more likely to continue victimization and also more likely to have higher depressive, social anxiety, and externalization symptoms
Shame can be tightly coupled with ________
Self conscious emotions develop as a result of...
1. Understanding self versus other
2. Cognitive ability to appraise evaluations
Embarrassment, shame, and guilt reflect the belief that...
we have done something wrong
Thompson's definition of emotion regulation
extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions especially their intensive and temporal features to accomplish one's goals
Emotions as regulating
Fear regulates action tendencies
One person's emotions can regulate another's (i.e., child's emotion influences caregivers)
Emotions as regulated
Activated emotion has changed due to some process
Strategy accounts of emotion regulation
Arousal part of emotion is separate from the regulation part
Aka two-factor models
Process accounts of emotion regulation
Arousal part of emotion is NOT separate from the regulation part
Aka functionalist perspective
James Gross came up with this model...
Modal model (now known as process model)
Briefly define Gross' model
Emotion generation process is lined up with emotion regulation sequence.
Start by choosing a situation, then choosing among different circumstances within situation, focus on certain aspects, generate meaning from it, have emotional response
Closely related term to emotion regulation
What is the distinction between emotion regulation and coping according to the textbook?
Coping is always an attempt to reduce negative emotion, whereas emotion regulation may include trying to increase or decrease positive emotion, or even trying to increase negative emotion if it seems appropriate and helpful at the time.
Vaillant suggested that Freud's ego defence mechanisms could be organized into FOUR categories that reflect different stages of maturity as well as differing effects on psychological and life outcomes.
1. Psychotic defences
2. Immature defences
3. Neurotic defences
4. Mature defences
Most common in young children
Indicate trauma or psychopathology in adults
i.e., fantasy and projection
Typical of adolescents
i.e., displacement, repression, reaction formation
Common in adults - are socially acceptable
Proposed to be healthiest because they lead to prosocial and constructive behaviour
- Choosing situations wisely
- Changing the situation
- Attentional control
- Cognitive re-appraisal
What were the 2 hypotheses that the 5 studies discussed in lecture tested?
1. People differ in their use of ER strategies reappraisal and suppression
2. These individual differences have implications for affect, well-being, and social relations
What were the major findings from the 5 studies discussed in lecture?
1. Men suppressed their emotions more than women
2. European-Americans used less suppression
3. Suppression is associated with less support and lower quality relationships
4. Re-appraisal associated with better well-being and suppression associated with lower well-being
Haine's et al., found that those with high depression....
Re-appraise in situations in which they have high-control and don't use re-appraisal as much in situations which they don't have control.
This is not beneficial. Same pattern was found for those with high anxiety, stress, etc.
When is suppression beneficial?
Superior performers suppressing positive emotion can be beneficial and cause people to view them more favourably
What is a strategy?
A plan (i.e., suppression, re-appraisal, etc.)
What is a tactic?
More direct than strategies and involves taking action.
Give an example of 6 ER tactics
5. Expressive engagement
6. Expressive suppression
Briefly describe the main findings of Hollenstein and DeFrance study
- Three groups each consisting of participants with a similar repertoire: suppression propensity, expression propensity, and multi-strategy group
- Wanted to see whether the patterns of strategies that people used were more important than the individual strategies used
- Those in the expression and multi-strategy group were generally doing better
What is the "clinicians illusion"?
Generalizing from patients to non-clinical populations (i.e., pathologizing all emotions, pathologizing adolescence)
Allen and Nelson proposed that there are multiple regulatory systems with multiple regulatory targets that change across development. What does this mean?
There is an emotional state (i.e., anger), psychological goals (i.e., autonomy), and interpersonal goals (i.e., peer status).
For example, youth may go out to do risky things to regulate their interpersonal goal of peer status
What did Hollenstein and DeFrance find in regard to re-appraisal and relationship quality AND suppression and relationship quality
1. Re-appraisal is positively associated with relationship quality as age increases (when an adult)
2. Suppression is positively associated with relationship quality in young groups and (early adolescence and young adulthood)
With regard to ER, what does it mean that what fires together wires together?
Whatever is practiced will develop
How is it that co-regulation leads to self-regulation?
Co-regulation provides context for child's brain and body to realize that emotional outputs are controllable
Contrast benefit approach and deficit approach
Benefit approach - wellbeing is enhanced by more/better relationships. Stress manifestation is minimized in the face of threat when a close other is around.
Deficit approach - fewer/poor relationships diminish functioning. We start with a baseline (stress manifestations occurring in the presence of a close other)
Social baseline basically says that...
Hills are perceived as steeper, distances as farther when fatigued, less physically fit, stressed, or in a low mood.
In the presence of a close other hills seem less steep, distances less far, etc.
Social relationships conserve energy through...
1. Risk distribution
2. Load sharing
Distribution of risks among members of group (i.e., safety in numbers)
Trust and interdependence with close others
Our baseline is social, so the human brain...
Expects access to relationships & assumes proximity to relationships
One study manipulated the amount of social contact during a threatening situation in which a mild shock may or may not be delivered to the participant. What did they find?
Partner handholding was able to minimize more stress manifestations relative to the no handholding condition and the stranger handholding condition
Briefly describe the main findings of the "Load sharing in mother infant dyads" study
Infant exhibited higher behavioural avoidance when mom faced negative evaluation.
Infant demonstrated similar pattern of arousal as mother who endured negative evaluation.
These findings suggest that load sharing occurs early in development
Briefly describe the main findings of the "Load sharing in mother daughter dyads in adolescence" study
Researchers wondered if they would see load sharing during this time in development in which there is a high degree of closeness as well as a high degree of conflict
In the hand touching condition, relationship quality didn't matter - stress was being regulated
In the no hand touching condition, high relationship quality regulated stress BUT low relationship quality stress stayed the same and stayed high
Briefly describe the main findings of the the study on digital emotion regulation
Researchers wondered whether digital support was as sufficient as in-person support
They found that both fostered successful regulation of emotions AND that digital support was equally likely to be utilized when alone and when not alone
Social baseline theory is based on the premise that...
Humans evolved to be around other humans
SO, our baseline is fundamentally social
Researchers sometimes distinguish among three types of negative emotion, each of which can be elicited by some sort of violation:
Hostile aggression versus instrumental aggression
Hostile aggression is motivated by anger with the specific intent to hurt someone whereas instrumental aggression is harmful/threatening behaviour used to obtain something or achieve some goal
Much of human aggression is ___________
What is the value of anger?
Anger communicates irritation and feelings of hurt so that people can apologize, understand you better, and avoid similar acts in the future
People with damage to this area of the brain are impaired at suppressing their emotional expressions
Hostile people who express anger frequently and explosively are more vulnerable to...
_____ is more likely than ____ to involve a sense of agency and control
According to Lazarus, the core relational theme of anger is...
a demeaning offence against me and mine
According to Lazarus, sadness is a response to...
What is the value of sadness?
Sad behaviour brings other people to us and elicits their sympathy and concern
Research has suggested that when people are in a sad mood...
they process information more carefully and systematically
When standards, rules, and goals are violated we experience...
shame, guilt, and/or embarrassment
When standards, rules, and goals are adhered to we experience...
pride and/or hubris
_______-prone people tend to have more problems with relationships than _______-prone people
What is the objective of Gross' process model?
To help researchers classify emotion regulation strategies according to when they take place in the emotion process
When you have little to no control over a situation what are the best strategies?
Distraction or reappraisal
Anger is elicited by what kind of violation?
Violation of autonomy
Disgust is elicited by what kind of violation?
Violation of purity
Contempt is elicited by what kind of violation?
Violation of community standards
During most negative emotions the _____ hemisphere of the frontal cortex is more active and is associated with ________ motivation
During most positive emotions the _____ hemisphere of the frontal cortex is more active and is associated with ________ motivation
Poor emotion regulation is a vulnerability factor underlying the development of most psychopathology
Antisocial, aggression, poor impulse control, overactivity, etc.
Anxiety, depression, withdrawal, etc.
4 domains that are considered transdiagnostic:
1. Low emotional awareness
2. Emotional inhibition
3. Dysregulation expression
4. Emotion regulation
Low emotional awareness is associated with...
internalizing symptoms for sadness and anger
Emotional inhibition is associated with...
internalizing symptoms for anger
Dysregulation expression is associated with...
internalizing symptoms for sadness and anger
externalizing symptoms for sadness
Emotion regulation is associated with...
internalizing and externalizing symptoms
Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated a low response were also deemed...
Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated a regulated response were also deemed...
Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated an unregulated response also demonstrated...
Children in the bead sorting task who demonstrated a moderate response and expression were also deemed...
Granic and Lougheed argued that anxiety is primary and aggression is secondary. What does this mean?
Something makes you anxious (i.e., lack of control & lack of certainty) so you regulate this anxiety by taking control (i.e., aggression)
What were the 3 hypotheses proposed by Granic and Lougheed in regard to the connection between anxiety and aggression?
1. Unpredictable parenting
2. Aggression as anxiety regulation
3. Targeting anxiety will alter the aggressive outcome
Give an example of psychopathology being a risk factor for poor ER
Those with depression experience a lot of negative emotion so they may turn to an unhealthy amount of suppression
Getting "stuck" in emotional states
AKA emotional inertia