Part 3 File Systems 9 - 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 3 File Systems 9 - 12 Deck (31)
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3 partition schemes:

GUID partition table
APM Apple Partition Map
MBR Master Boot Record


2 Mac volume formats

Mac OS Extended (journaled)
Mac OS Extended (journaled, encrypted)


4 Window volume formats:

FAT File Allocation Table
ExFat Extended
UFS Unix File Systems
NTFS New Tech File Systems (read only)


2 CD/DVD Formats

CDFS Compact disc File Syst
UDF Universal Disk Format (read only)


How are disks, partitions, and volumes different from one another?

Disks are the actual storage hardware;
Partitions are logical divisions of a disk used to define the storage space
Volumes (contained inside partitions) are used to define how the individual files and folders are saved to the storage.


How does file system journaling work?

records which file operations are in progress at any given moment. This way, if a power failure or system crash occurs, after the system restarts, it will be able to quickly verify the integrity of the volume by “replaying” the journal.


What is Core Storage, and what major OS X features are implemented via Core Storage?

A file system management layer.
Provide disk encryption (i.e. FileVault) and combine separate disks (i.e. used by Fusion Drive)


4 Erase options in disk utility:

1) Fastest
2) writes one pass of zeros
3) writes three separate passes of information on top of the previous disk data
4) writes seven separate passes of information on top of the previous disk data


How does the Secure Empty Trash feature in Finder work?

Performs a 7-pass erase on the contents of the Trash folder.


How can you ensure that previously deleted items are securely erased?

From the Erase tab in Disk Utility, choose 'securely erase the free space' of a disk or volume.


How can you encrypt a disk without losing its contents?

From the Finder, secondary (or Control-) click the disk and choose Encrypt from the shortcut menu.


What 3 methods can be used to eject a volume or disk
from the FINDER?

1) Drag the disk icon to the Trash in the Dock
3) Select the volume and choose Eject from the File menu
4) In Finder sidebar, click the small Eject button next to the volume


What’s the potential side effect of improperly unmounting or ejecting a disk or volume?

May cause data corruption. (The system automatically verifies and repairs an improperly unmounted or ejected volume the next time it becomes available to the Mac.)


How does FileVault protect a user’s data?

By using strong XTS-AES 128 encryption.


What are the system requirements for using FileVault?

Must have the hidden OS X Recovery HD volume on the system disk.


Which users are allowed to unlock a FileVault-protected system?

Any user who’s FileVault enabled is allowed to unlock a FileVault-protected system. This includes any local or cached network user account that was enabled when FileVault 2 was set up or created after FileVault 2 was enabled. Administrators may return to Security and Privacy preferences to enable additional accounts.


How can you unlock a FileVault-protected system when all user accounts have lost their passwords?

By using the recovery key that was generated during the FileVault setup process.


How do you identify the ownership and permissions of a file or folder in the Finder?

By using the Info or Inspector windows in the Finder.


How do ACLs differ from standard UNIX file system permissions?

UNIX file system permissions allow for permissions to be set only per owner, group or everyone.
ACLs allow for an essentially unlimited list of permissions entries (diff permissions can be added at bottom of "get info" inspector box).


What’s the locked file flag do?

Prevents anyone (including the item’s owner) from editing an item. Only the item’s owner can unlock the item.


Why is the root, or beginning, level of a user’s home folder
visible to other users?

So other users so they can navigate to the Public shared folder.


How does the default organization of the file system allow users to safely share local files and folders?

Every home folder contains a Public folder that other users can read and a Drop Box folder that other users can write to. All other subfolders in a user’s home folder (except the optional Sites folder) have default permissions that don’t allow access to other users. The Shared folder is also set for all users to share items.


What’s unique about the permissions of the /Users/Shared folder?

The Shared folder is set up to allow all users to read and write files, but only the user who owns an item can delete it from the Shared folder. (This is accomplished using the sticky-bit permissions setting.)


What does it mean when you choose the option to “ignore volume ownership” in the Finder? What are the security ramifications of ignoring volume ownership?

This will ignore any ownership rules and grant any logged-on user unlimited access to the contents of the volume. It’s a potential security risk because it will allow any local user account to have full access to the volume, even if that user didn’t originally mount the volume.


Which two built-in OS X applications can be used to gather information about storage devices?

Disk Utility and System Information


What does the Disk Utility Verify and Repair feature do?

Verify or repair the partition scheme and directory structure of a volume. (These elements contain the information used to locate files and folders on the volume.)


What is target disk mode and how is it engaged?

Mac-specific hardware feature that will share the Mac computer’s internal disks through the FireWire or thunderbolt ports. Target disk mode can be engaged from Startup Disk preferences or by holding down the T key as you turn on the Mac.


Which permissions are modified by the Disk Utility Repair Permissions feature?

Only repairs the ownership and permissions for items installed by Apple. However, this may resolve issues with third-party products.


How can you reset a user’s home folder permissions?

From the Reset Password application on OS X Recovery.


4 Level permission options with files and folders:

1) Read and Write
2) Read Only
3) No Access
4) Write Only (for Drop Box folder)