Flashcards in Part 4 Data Management Lesson 13- 16 Deck (27)
Why does the Finder hide certain folders at the root of the system volume?
Because users don’t need to have access to those items. (If users need access to these UNIX items, they can access them from Terminal.)
Which two methods are used to hide items from the Finder?
1) periods at the beginning of their filenames
2) hidden file flag enabled
What does OS X use bundles or packages for?
To combine complex items into individual folders.
How does an alias differ from a symbolic link?
An alias contains information that allows the system to keep track of the original item if it’s renamed or moved within the same volume whereas the symbolic link is broken if any changes are made to original item
Why would you use an archive file instead of a disk image? Why would you use a disk image instead of an archive file?
Archive files are much simpler to create in the Finder and are compatible with third-party operating systems.
Disk images are more difficult to create and manage but offer greater flexibility (easily modified and converted) but are not compatible with third-party operating systems.
What type of file is created by the Finder when you select the Archive option?
A compressed zip archive file.
Which action on OS X is set as the default for opening zip archive files?
Double-clicking expands the contents of the zip archive
Which OS X application is responsible for the creation and management of disk images?
What are the 4 default top-level folders visible in the Finder?
What are six common system resources? What purpose does each resource serve?
1) Extensions, which attach themselves to the system kernel
to provide hardware and peripheral driver support
2) Frameworks, which are shared code libraries that provide additional software resources for both applications and system processes
4) Preference files, which contain application and system
5) LaunchAgents and LaunchDaemons, used by launchd to provide services that automatically start when needed at system startup or at user login
6) Logs, which are text files that contain error and progress entries from nearly any application or system service
What are the four system resource domains? What purpose does each domain serve?
1) USER: containing applications and system resources specific to each user account
2) LOCAL: containing applications and system resources available to all users on the local Mac
3) NETWORK: (optional), containing applications and system resources available to any Mac that has an automated network share
4) SYSTEM: containing applications and system resources required to provide basic system functionality
What purpose does the ~/Library/Containers folder serve? What items will you find in this folder? What is the advantage to this file type?
To contain resources for sandboxed applications. The system creates and maintains a separate container folder for each sandboxed application the user opens. A sandboxed application is more secure because it can access only items inside its container.
What happens when a user double-clicks a font file?
automatically opens a preview of the font in the Font Book application. From here, the user can click the Install Font button to copy the font into ~/Library/ Fonts.
How can you identify duplicate fonts?
The Font Book application shows a small dot next to the name of any font that has duplicate resources.
What’s a file system metadata? What are some examples of file system metadata?
Information stored outside of a file or folder. Examples include file flags, extended file attributes, and permissions.
What are 2 of the common file flags used by OS X?
Locked Files, Hidden Files
What are file system tags? Where can you find tags in the user interface (3 places)?
A type of metadata that allow you to quickly assign keywords, or “tags,” to any item; user can customize the tag by names and colors.
Can be found in the Finder sidebar, Spotlight search, and/or any open or save document dialogs.
How does the Spotlight search service use metadata?
It creates index databases of file system metadata so that it can perform time-intensive searches nearly instantly.
Where does Spotlight store its metadata index databases?
How about the Spotlight plug-ins?
Stored at the root of every volume in a /.Spotlight-V100 folder. \
Spotlight plug-ins can be located in any of the Library folders in a folder named Spotlight.
What are some privacy and security concerns with the Spotlight service?
It allows other users to search the contents of locally attached nonsystem volumes when ownership is ignored on those volumes.
How do you resolve an issue where a Spotlight search doesn’t find the correct items?
Forcing a rebuild by adding an item to the Spotlight preferences Privacy list and then removing the item. This deletes the current index database and forces the system to build a new one.
Which 3 backup destination disks does Time Machine support?
1) Mac OS Extended volume
2) Network shares hosted from Time Capsule
3) OS X Server.
How does Time Machine maintain a backup history of the file system?
Time Machine starts with a full copy of the file system. Then it maintains a list of changes to the file system, and every hour copies only the changes to the backup disk. In the backup, it creates a simulation of the full file system using hard links for files that haven’t changed.
Which6 types of files are omitted from Time Machine backups?
1) temporary files,
2) Spotlight indexes,
4) log files
5) cache files.
6) any files that have been defined as exempt in Time Machine preferences.
Why is Time Machine inefficient at backing up large
It must back up the entire database file every time any change, no matter how small, is made to the database.
Why might a previously backed-up item no longer be available in Time Machine?
if your backup volume filled up and Time Machine had to start deleting older items to make room for newer ones.