Part 4: Diversity of Archaea Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 4: Diversity of Archaea Deck (46):
1

How many phyla are Archaea split into?

5

2

Key genus of Haloarchaea

Halobacterium

3

Environment of Halobacterium

Minimum 1.5 M (~9%) NaCl for growth

4

Halobacterium are found in?

Solar salt evaporation ponds and salt lakes where salt concentrations approaches saturation - highly alkaline hypersaline environments

5

How do halophiles maintain osmotic balance?

Accumulation or synthesis of compatible solutes

6

Halobacterium pump large amounts of what into the cell?

K+ into the cell - intracellular K+ concentration exceeds extracellular Na+ concentration and positive water balance is maintained

7

What is a unique feature found only in some haloarchaea?

Light-driven synthesis of ATP using bacteriohodopsin

8

Bacteriorhodopsin

Cytoplasmic membrane proteins that can absorb light energy and pump proteins across the membrane to make ATP
Cannot fix CO2
= photoheterotrophs

9

Key genera of Methanogenic Archaea

Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina

10

Methanogens are the only microbes capable of?

Significant methane production

11

What do methanogens produce?

The bulk of CH4 in the atmosphere (green house gas)

12

Methanogens are strict

Anaerobes

13

Where are methanogens found in?

Diverse anaerobic environment - cow's gut, sewage sludge

14

Methanobacteriales cell wall

Composed of pseudomurein similar in structure to peptidoglycan

15

Methanogen cell wall type

S-layer made of protein or glycoprotein

16

Obligate anaerobes use what substrates

H2+CO2, formate, acetate, methanol

17

Methanobacterium use what substrates

H2+CO2 but not methanol or acetate

18

Methanosarcine use what substrates

Acetate and methanol but only some can use H2+CO2

19

How do methanogens use glucose?

It can be converted to methane but only in a cooperative reaction between them and other anaerobic bacteria

20

Key genus of Thaumarchaeota

Nitrosopumilus

21

How does Nitrosopumilus grow?

Chemolithotrophically by aerobically oxidizing ammonia

22

Nitrosopumilus carbon source

CO2

23

Nitrosopumilus can grow

At very low levels of ammonia

24

What do indigenous Nitrosopumilus do?

Ammonia oxidation in open ocean water

25

What can Nitrosopumilus do for the soil?

Nitrify it

26

Example of Nanoarchaeota

Nanoarchaeum equitans

27

Size of Nanoarchaeum equitans

~0.4 micrometers

28

Nanoarchaeum equitans forms a symbiotic relationship with

Crenarchaeote Ignicoccus

29

Genome of Nanoarchaeum equitans

Smallest genome known

30

Nanoarchaeum lack

Genes for all but core molecular processes

31

Nanoarchaeum rely on the host for

Most of its cellular needs

32

Korarchaeum cryptofilum metabolism

Obligately anaerobic chemoorganotrophic

33

Korarchaeum cryptofilum environment

Hyperthermophile

34

Korarchaeum cryptofilum cells

Long, thin filaments that lack many core genes

35

Korarchaeum cryptofilum rely on

Other members of hot spring community

36

Most Crenarchaeota are

Hyperthermophiles but some lives in extremely cold environments

37

Metabolism of Crenarchaeota

Chemoorganotrophs or chemolithotrophs

38

Crenarchaeota respiration

Aerobically or anaerobic

39

Crenarchaeota accepts what electons

NO3-, S0, Fe3+

40

Crenarchaeota donates what electrons

H2

41

Example of Crenarchaeota

Sulfolobus

42

Sulfolobus lives in

Sulfur-rich acidic hot spring (pH 2)

43

Sulfolobus metabolism and respiration

Aerobic chemolithotrophs

44

Sulfolobus oxidize

Reduce sulfur or iron

45

Crenarchaeota contain several representatives which have an optimum growth temperature

Above 100C

46

Geogemma barossii can grow up to

121C