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Flashcards in Part 4: Diversity of Bacteria Deck (119):
1

Cyanobacteria size

Larger than bacteria

2

Cyanobacteria forms

Unicellular, filamentous, or branching filamentous

3

What do some cyanobacteria form?

Heterocysts

4

Heterocysts are

Specialized nitrogen fixing cells

5

All cyanobacteria carry out

Oxygenic photosynthesis

6

Oxygenic photosynthesis

Harvest energy from light and produce oxygen

7

All cyanobacteria are

Autotrophs

8

Autotrophs

Fix CO2 to build cell material

9

Where do cyanobacteria carry out photosynthesis?

Thylakoids

10

What do cyanobacteria have that chloroplast don't have?

Cell walls

11

What do cells of cyanobacteria contain?

Peptidoglycan
Gram negative cell wall type

12

Where do cyanobacteria reside in?

Terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats

13

What organism has the lowest nutritional requirement?

Cyanobacteria (primary producers)

14

Example of cyanobacteria

Prochlorococcus

15

What is one of the most abundant organisms on Earth?

Prochlorococcus

16

How much of prochlorococcus's photosynthesis accounts for the world's ocean?

Half

17

What group does most of the commonly encountered bacteria fall into?

Proteobacteria

18

Proteobacteria use what kind of metabolism?

Chemolithotrophs
Chemoorganotrophs
Phototrophs
Facultative organisms that can switch from one metabolic lifestyle to another

19

What are the well-studied groups of Proteobacteria?

Alpha, Beta, Gamma

20

What group of proteobacteria is the strange group?

Delta and Epsilon

21

What group of Proteobacteria only have one known species?

Zetaproteobacteria

22

Alphaproteobacteria include

Pathogens and non-pathogens

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Alphaproteobacteria example of a non-pathogen

Rhizobium leguminosarum

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What do Rhizobium leguminosarum form on legume plants?

Root nodules

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What do Rhizobium leguminosarum do for legume plants?

Fix nitrogen into a bioavailable form

26

Alphaproteobacteria example of a pathogen

Rickettsia rickettsii

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Rickettsia rickettsii is what kind of pathogen?

Obligate intracellular

28

How does Rickettsia ricketsii travel?

By insects through their bites

29

What do Rickettsia ricketsii cause?

Rocky mountain spotted fever

30

What is the closest relative to eukaryotic mitochondria?

Rickettsia

31

Betaproteobacteria example of non-pathogen

Neisseria mucosa

32

Where do Neisseria mucosa reside?

On mucous membranes

33

Betaproteobacteria example of pathogen

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

34

What group of bacterium grows well in lab?

Gammaproteobacteria

35

Example of Gammaproteobacteria

Escherichia coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

36

What kind of respiration does E. coli use?

Facultative aerobe

37

What kind of flagella does E. coli have?

Petrichous

38

What does E. coli ferment?

Lactose to a mixture of acids and alcohols

39

Where do E. coli reside?

Large intestine of warm-blooded animals

40

What kind of flagella does Pseudomonas aeruginosa have?

Polar flagella

41

Does P. aeruginosa ferment sugars?

No

42

What kind of pathogen is P. aeruginosa?

Opportunistic pathogen - causes infections in immunocompromised patients

43

What kind of infection does P. aeruginosa cause in cystic fibrosis patients?

Respiratory tract infections

44

Example of Deltaproteobacteria

Myxococcus xanthus

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What kind of motility does M. xanthus have?

Gliding

46

How is M. xanthus a predator?

Releases exoenzymes to lyse other bacteria for nutrients

47

What happens when M. xanthus is starved?

Cells migrate together to form complex multicellular fruiting bodies?

48

Myxospores

M. xanthus individual cells that differentiate for dispersal

49

Firmicutes have what kind of cell walls

Gram positive

50

Firmicutes lack what nitrogenous bases?

Guanine and cytosine

51

Firmicutes include

Both lactic acid bacteria and non-lactic acid bacteria

52

Lactic acid bacteria fermentation produces

Lactic acid as an end product

53

Examples of lactic acid Firmicutes

Lactobacillus delbrueckii
Streptococcus pyogenes

54

Lactobacillus delbrueckii is used in

Yogurt production

55

Streptococcus pyogenes causes

Strep throat, scarlet fever, and the flesh-eating disease

56

Examples of non-lactic acid firmicutes

Staphylococcus aureus

57

What kind of respiration does S. aureus use?

Facultative aerobe

58

What kind of clusters does S. aureus form?

Grape-like

59

Where does S. aureus live?

On skin

60

What is special about S. aureus?

They are halotolerant - can be isolated using media with high NaCl like mannitol salt agar

61

What is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections?

S. aureus

62

Endospore forming Firmicutes include

Bacillus and Clostridium

63

Bacillus are what kind of endospore formers?

Aerobic

64

Clostridum are what kind of endospore formers?

Anaerobic

65

Where are endospore formers usually found?

In soil

66

What are most endospore formers?

Non-phagocytic saprophytic soil organisms

67

Bacillus subtilis are used as a model for

Gram positive cell structure and genetics
Cell division and differentiation (into endospores)

68

Where does C. botulinum live?

Tiny anoxic pockets in soil

69

What does C. botulinum secrete?

A variety of exoenzymes to degrade plant material

70

What does C. botulinum produce?

Deadly neurotoxin which causes botulism

71

Proper canning procedures must either

Reach temp above 120C to destroy endospores
Include enough acid or sugar to prevent germination

72

Tenericutes are known as

The Mycoplasmas

73

Mycoplasmas are related to

Gram positives

74

Mycoplasmas stain

Gram negative because they don't have a cell wall

75

What shape are Mycoplasmas?

Pleomorphic - variety

76

Mycoplasma genitalium is the common cause of

Urethritis and pelvic inflammatory disease

77

M. genitalium was the first

Free-living bacterium to have its genome sequenced

78

Size of M. genitalium

Very small - 500 kbp

79

Actinobacteria are gram

Positive

80

Actinobacterium have high amount of what nitrogenous baases?

Guanine and Cytosine

81

Actinobacterium include

Coryneform bacteria
Mycobacteria

82

Corynebacterium produce

An exotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis that cause tissue death in the respiratory tract - diptheria

83

Mycobacteria cell wall

Modified gram positive cell wall - layer of mycolic acids outside the peptidoglycan layer - makes them acid fast

84

Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth

~24 hr/gen

85

M. tuberculosis take how long to grow on agar medium?

Weeks

86

Filamentous Actinobacteria

Streptomyces

87

Streptomyces form

Branching hyphae and mycelia

88

Hyphae produce

Reproductive spores for dispersal - conidia

89

Streptomyces use what kind of respiration

Obligate aerobes

90

Streptomyces live in

Well aerated soils

91

What gives soil its earthy smell?

Geosmins produced by Streptomyces

92

What do Streptomyces produce?

Substances that kill or inhibit the growth of other microbes - antibiotics

93

Streptomyces griseus produces

Streptomycin - a broad spectrum protein synthesis inhibitor active against Gram negative bacteria

94

Bacteroidetes

Large, heterogenus phylum of Gram negative bacteria

95

Bacterioidetes have what in common?

Not much at all

96

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron uses what kind of respiration?

Strict anaerobe

97

B. thetaiotaomicron lives where?

Large intestine of humans

98

B. thetaiotaomicron produces

Enzymes to degrade polysaccharides - greatly increasing the variety of plant polymers that can be digested by the human gut

99

Chlamydiae have what kind of cell wall type?

Gram negative that lacks peptidoglycan

100

What kind of parasite is Chlamydiae?

Obligate intracellular

101

Life-cycle forms of Chlamydiae

Elementary and reticulate body

102

Elementary body

Small dense cell, resists drying
Allows infection of new host cells

103

Reticulate body

Larger vegetative cells
Multiply inside an existing host but are not infective

104

Chlamydia trachomatis causes what

Trachoma - infection of eye that can cause scarring and blindness

105

Planctomycetes are what kind of bacteria?

Budding and appendaged

106

What does Planctomycetes use their stalk for?

Attachment

107

Cell wall of Planctomyces lack

Peptidoglycan

108

What is unique about Planctomycetes cell?

Some have membrane-bound compartments

109

Gemmata obscuriglobus nucleoid

Surrounded by a true-unit membrane

110

What suggest that the last LUCA may have been a hyperthermophiles?

Several deeply branching phyla

111

Deinococcus-thermus species

Thermus aquaticus
Deinococcus radiodurans

112

Thermus aquaticus metabolism

Chemoorganoheterotroph

113

Thermus aquaticus source of temperature stable enzymes

Taq DNA polymerase

114

Taq DNA polymerase allows

DNA synthesis reactions in the lab to be carried out quickly at high temperatures

115

Taq DNA polymerase is an essential tool for

PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

116

Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to?

Radiation

117

Deinococcus radiodurans have highly effective

DNA repair mechanisms

118

Deinococcus radians form

Pairs or tetrads in response to massive DNA damage
Can fuse nucleoids from two cells to facilitate repair

119

Deinococcus radians cell wall type

Gram negative but stain gram positive because of thick peptidoglycan