Part 5: Overview of Adaptive Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 5: Overview of Adaptive Immunity Deck (34):
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Adaptive immune response

Acts against a specific intruder

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Adaptive immune response branches

Humoral (antibody mediated) immunity
Cellular (cell mediated) immunity

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Antibodies (Ab) are also called

Immunoglobulins (Ig)

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Glycoproteins are composed of

2 identical heavy chains
2 identical light chains

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Fab

2 identical antigen binding sites on the antibody

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Fc site

Interacts with other components of the immune system

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How many classes of antibodies are there?

5

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Immunoglobulin G (IgG)

Monomer
Most abundant antibody in blood and tissues
Most important for combating a pathogen

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Immunoglobulin M (IgM)

Pentamer
First antibody made when a new antigen is encountered
Excellent at agglutination
Does not leave blood and enter tissues

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Immunoglobulin A (IgA)

Dimer
Secreted into saliva, tears, mucous
Helps to protect mucosal surfaces

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Immunoglobulin D (IgD)

Monomer
Found on the surface of B cells
Plays a role in activating B cells to respond against an antigen

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Immunoglobulin E (IgE)

Monomer
Found on the surface of mast cells and basophils
Causes them to release granules of histamine
Triggers allergic response

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Antibodies have five major functions

Neutralization
Opsonization
Agglutination
Antibody mediated cytotoxicity
Complement activation

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Neutralization

Ab stick to antigens on a foreign particle and block attachment sites - stops bacteria, viruses, and toxins from entering host cells

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Opsonzation

Ab stick to a pathogen's surface and flag down phagocytes
Phagocyte interacts with the Fc region and engulfs the pathogen
Greatly increases rate of phagocytosis

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Agglutination

Ab can stick to two identical antigens
Bridges particles together in clumps
Can be phagocytized more easily

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Antibody mediated cytotoxicity

Ab binds to antigen on the surface of a parasite
Fc can interact with eosinophils
Eosinophils release enzymes and reactive oxygen intermediates to attack the parasite

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Complement activation

Ab bound to a bacteria can activate complement
Results in the membrane attack complex (MAc)
Insert into bacterial membranes
Forms a pore
Cell leaks and dies

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Complement

A set of proteins in the blood that assist other components of the immune system
"Classical pathway" of complement activation

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Acquired

A pathogen must be encountered before the adaptive immune response is mounted

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Specific

Can mount a directed attack against a specific pathogen - immunity to one pathogen does not confer immunity to another

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Memory

Once a specific pathogen has been encountered immune system cells multiply and produce long living memory

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Tolerance

Inability to mount an adaptive immune response against self-antigens
Immune system cells that recognize self-antigens are destroyed during development

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Primary response

The first time a new pathogen is encountered, the adaptive immune response is weak

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What is the major result of primary response?

Immunologic memory

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Secondary response

The next time that pathogen is encountered memory cells are ready to response
Response can be so quick that the pathogen is unable to cause disease - immunity

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Immunogen

Any foreign particle that can induce an adaptive immune response
Normally large molecules - protein, polysaccharides, some lipids

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Antigen

Any substance that can react with antibodies or receptors on adaptive immune system cells

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Antibody

Proteins made by the immune system that can bind to, and inactive foreign antigens

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Epitope

The actual part of the antigen that can bind to antibody

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More epitopes on an antigen mean

The more immunogenic it will be and the more diverse population of antibodies can be generated against it

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Hapten

Low molecular weight compound too small to be immunogenic on its own, but can be highly antigenic

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Example of hapten

Penicillin

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Penicillin is small and non-immunogenic on its own

Can bind to proteins in the blood forming a strong immunogen
Antibodies are formed against it - leading to an allergic response