PATH: Pulmonary Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

Pulmonary > PATH: Pulmonary Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in PATH: Pulmonary Neoplasia Deck (104):
1

What types of neoplasms RARELY originate in the lung, and are not included in the definition of lung cancer?

Lymphomas and sarcomas

2

True or False: lung cancer is the most common cause o f cancer death and the US world-wide.

TRUE!

3

What is the major risk factor for lung cancer?

SMOKING (80% in active or former smokers)

4

What occupational hazard increases the risk of lung cancer 5 fold?

asbestos workers

5

What are KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA ?

cytoplasmic signal transducer oncogenes that can be mutated in lung cancers

6

What are NKX2-1 (which codes for TTF1) and MYC?

nuclear DNA transcription oncogenes that are amplified in some lung cancers

7

What are CDKN2A (which codes for p16(INK4A), RB, TP53 and LKB1?

tumor suppressor genes mutated or deleted in some lung cancers

8

What is TTF1?

Thyroid transcription factor 1 (controls the expression of surfactant proteins and part of embryonic lung morphogenesis)--but has anti-oncogenic AND pro-oncoenic effects

9

What are the 3 major types of lung cancers?

1) Adenocarcinoma (40%)
2) Squamous cell carcinoma (20%)
3) Small cell lung cancer (15%)

10

In what epidemiological groups are adenocarcinomas becoming more comon?

Women, Young Patients (under 40), Asians, and never smokers

11

Where are adenocarcinomas most commonly found?

peripherally

12

What type of lung cancer is becoming less common?

squamous cell carcinomas

13

What are features of squamous cell carcinoma in the lung?

Central
commonly cavitate
commonly metastatic to local lymph nodes at presentation
cause post-obstructive pneumonia and hypercalcemia

14

True or false: small cell lung cancer is more commonly benign at presentation.

FALSE: >67% metastatic at presentation

15

What are some features of small cell lung cancer?

central
parabronchial
associated with paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, Cushing syndrome, or Eaton-Lambert syndrome

16

What is the average age for lung cancer symptoms to present?

65-74

17

What are the most common symptoms of lung neoplasms?

Cough (less common with adenocarcinoma because it is peripheral)
Dyspnea
Weight loss
Hemoptysis
Chest pain

18

How do you diagnose lung cancer?

STEP 1: Discovery via radiology (should screen 55-80 year olds with 30+ pack years of smoking with low dose CT)

STEP2: Actionable diagnosis with biopsy

19

What is the treatment for lung cancer?

NSCC:
-Surgery if low stage
-Adjuvant 2-agent chemo (1 plat based) if higher stage, large, or if lymph nodes involved

SCC:
Chemotherapy

20

If lung cancer is limited to chest and mediastinal lymph nodes, what is the treatment?

chemo and radiation

21

What is erlotinib?

targeted drug therapy for mutated EGFR

22

What is crizotinib?

targeted therapy for translocated ALK

23

What is the prognosis for lung cancer?

BAD: 5 year survival is 17%

24

What is a lung primary adenocarcinoma?

malignant epithelial tumor of lung with glandular features such as making glands or mucin

25

Why has the incidence of filter cigarettes increased the amount of adenocarcinomas?

filter removes large particles but forces smoker to inhale deeper, so small particles get deposited in small airways

26

Which type of adenocarcinoma has an EFGR-dependent pathway?

adenocarcinoma in never-smokers

27

Which type of adenocarcinoma has an KRAS-dependent signaling pathway?

adenocarcinoma in smokers
(this is way less common than the EFGR mutation!)

28

True or false: the only way to become resistant to erlotinib is to have a mutation to EGRF?

FALSE: if KRAS is mutated (downstream), you will also get resistance (KRAS mutation is slightly more common than EGFR mutation)

29

What is the consequence of an EML4-ALK translocation fusion oncogene?

has potent oncogenic activity and confers resistance to crizotinib

30

Which tumor suppressor gene is mutated in 60-70% of adenocarcinomas?

p53

31

True or false: adenocarcinomas are the most likely lung cancer to respond to targeted therapy.

TRUE

32

Describe the gross pathology of adenocarcinomas.

Peripheral
Subpleural
< 4 cm
Solitary and solid
may have demoplastic reaction (scar)

33

What are the 5 microscopic patterns of adenocarcinoma?

Acinar
Papillary
Micropapillary
Solid
Lepidic

34

Which is the most common microscopic pattern of adenocarcinoma? What are its features?

acinar (makes glands and has demoplastic rxn)

35

Which microscopic pattern of adenocarcinoma has a good prognosis?

lepidic- spreads within alveoli (commonly a single cellular layer) without invading (adenocarcinoma in situ)

36

What two patterns of adenocarcinoma have bad prognoses?

Micropapillary
Solid

37

What are the most common symptoms of adenocarcnoma?

cough (50%), weight loss (40%), hemoptysis (25%), dyspnea (25%), chest pain (20%, usually dull and persistent)

38

Which pulmonary neoplasms are typically Napsin A, CK7, and TTF1 positive, but RARELY CK5/6 or p40 positive?

adenocarcinoma

39

Which pulmonary neoplasms are typically p40, p63, and CK5/6 positive but rarely TTF1 or Napsin A positive?

squamous cell carcinoma

40

What is the treatment for adenocarcinoma?

surgical resection (option only for low stage)
erlotinib (if have EGFR mutation)
crizotinib (if have ALK translocation)

IF INOPERABLE: radiation and double-agent cytotoxic chemotherapy

41

What is the first agent used in chemotherapy of adenocarcinomas?

DNA-cross-linking platinum salt (cisplatin or carboplatin)

42

What is typically the second agent used in chemotherapy of adenocarcinomas?

a antimicrotubule agent mitotic inhibitor like Taxol

43

What is a third agent that can improve survival if added to carboplatin and paclitaxel?

Bevacizumab (mAb to VEGF)

44

What is pemetrexed?

antifolate metabolite inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase (prevents formation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides for formatio of DNA and RNA)

45

What is etoposide?

topoisomerase inhibitor that forms a complex iwth DNA and the enzyme and prevents re-ligation of DNA strands

46

What is adenocarcinoma in situ?

non-invasive adenocarcinoma of lung characterized by non-destructive growth along intact alveolar septa (called lepidic growth)

47

Is adenocarcinoma in situ common?

NO <5% of lung cancers (mostly in women, older, and smokers)

48

What are the two types of adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung?

Mucinous
Non-mucinous

49

From what cells is mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung derived?

Metaplasia of bronchiolar epithelium

50

What are some features of mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung?

-pneumonia type radiologic infiltrate
-rarely demonstrating EGFR mutations
more frequently harboring and driven by a KRAS mutation

51

From what cells is non-mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung derived?

terminal respiratory unit cells (type II pneumocytes, goblet cells, Clara cells)

52

What are some features of non-mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung?

-Predominates in smokers
-Radiologic ground-glass opacity often at presentation
-EGFR mutation

53

What is aerogenous spread?

tumor spread via airways (tumor cells carried up by mucociliary ladder and then aspirated into other bronchi )

54

True or false: multifocal nodular cases are more common in the non-mucinous type.

FALSE: Single nodules are more commonly non-mucinous and multifocal nodular cases are mucinous type

55

What type of pulmonary neoplasm is CK20 positive and TTF1 negative, and usually KRAS positive and EGFR negative?

mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ

56

What type of pulmonary neoplasm is , usually TTF1 positive and CK20 negative, usually KRAS negative and “commonly” EGFR positive?

non-mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ

57

What is a way to remember the expression of markers between the two type of adenocarcinoma in situ?

MaCK NET (sounds like magnet)

Mucinous is CK20 positive and KRAS positive
Non-mucinous is positive for ERFR and TTF1

58

If a patient has bronchorrhea (rare) what is the most likely adenocarcinoma in situ that they have?

advanced mucinous (produce up to 100 mL of watery sputum)

59

What is squamous cell carcinoma of the lung?

lung primary malignant epithelial neoplasm with keratinization and/or intercellular bridges

60

Who gets squamous cell carcinoma of the lung?

Smokers
Men
Elderly
African Americans

61

What is the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung?

squamous metaplasia of bronchial mucosa and cumulative mutations in genes controlling cell proliferation caused by carcinogens in cigarette smoke

62

Why is squamous cell carcinoma of the lung most likely to cause hypercalcemia?

the production of a substance resembling parathyroid hormone by the cancer

63

In which pat of the lungs do squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs arise?

2/3 arising from main, lobar, segmental or subsegmental bronchi, 1/3 arising from smaller peripheral bronchi

64

What is the microscopic pathology of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung?

cohesive sheets, nests or cords of large cells with moderate smooth eosinophilic cytoplasm
intercellular bridges and/or keratinization (may form keratin pearls)

65

What drugs should you not treat squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with? Why?

Pemetrexed (does not work)
Bevacizumab (associated with hemorrhages--some fatal)

66

What is small cell carcinoma of the lung?

lung primary malignant epithelial neuroendocrine neoplasm composed of “small” cells (most aggressive type of lung cancer and most likely to cause paraneoplastic syndrome)

67

Who gets small cell carcinoma of the lung?

smokers
men
older adults

68

What is the pathogenesis of small cell carcinoma of the lung?

cumulative genetic alterations in genes controlling cell proliferation caused by carcinogens in cigarette smoke

69

What are the top 6 most common mutations in small cell carcinoma of the lung?

RB
RASSF1
Telomerase
Bcl-2
FHIT
p53

70

What is RASSF1?

gene that codes for a tumor supressor protein that inhibits RAS (promoter is commonly shut down by hypermethylation in small cell carcinomas)

71

What is FHIT?

gene that fragile histidine triad tumor suppressor protein involved in purine metabolism.

72

What is the microscopic pathology of small cell lung carcinoma?

"small” cells with round-to-oval shape, scant cytoplasm, finely granular (“salt and pepper”) nuclear chromatin, absent or inconspicuous nucleoli, frequent nuclear molding, many mitoses

73

What are some signs of small cell lung carcinoma?

Cervical and arm edema
SVC syndrome
Pemberton's sign (facial flushing, Inspiratory stridor, and elevation of JVP when you raise you arms above head)

74

What is the prognosis for small cell lung carcinoma?

responsive to chemotherapy but rapidly fatal despite being responsive

75

What are pulmonary metastases?

malignant neoplasms in the lungs originating from primary tumors in other organs

76

True or false: pulmonary metastases are much more common than primary lung tumors.

TRUE

77

What are 5 reasons why the lung is the organ that gets most metastases?

1) Lungs receive entire right heart blood flow
2) Lungs have densest capillary bed in the body
3) lungs have first capillary bed met by venous return from every other organ
4) lungs have first capillary bed met by lymphatic drainage after dumpted into SVC from thoracic duct
5) lung capillary bed offers uniquely high O2 levels

78

What types of neoplasia spread hematogenously (veins)?

sarcomas
*more commonly spread to lung

79

What types of neoplasms spread via lymphatic channels?

carcinomas

80

How do you differentiate metastases from lung primary tumors?

-multiple and frequently numerous
-tend to be smaller than lung primary tumors, usually <3 cm,
-tend to be rounder than primary tumors
-more commonly peripheral,
-less commonly endobronchial
-more rapidly growing

81

What is Lymphangitic carcinomatosis?

metastatic disease that can fill lymphatics and infiltrate interstitium without creating mass lesions

82

What are the immunohistochemical tests you use to differentiate between primary adenocarcinoma and metastasis?

FIRST: CK7 and CK20
SECOND: CDX2 and TTF1
THIRD: tons fo immunostains

83

What organ's primary adenocarcinoma is commonly CK7 and TTF1 positive, CK20 and CDX2 negative?

lung primary adenocarcinoma

84

What organ's primary adenocarcinoma is commonly CK20 and CDX1 positive and CK7 and TTF1 negative?

colon primary adenocarcinoma

85

What organ's primary adenocarcinoma is commonly CK1 and CK20 positive and CDX2 and TTF1 negative?

breast primary adenocarcinoma

86

What organ's primary adenocarcinoma is commonly negative for CK1, CK20, CDX2, and TTF1?

kidney primary adenocarcinoma

87

What are the top 3 organs that metastasize to the lung?

breast
colon
stomach

88

What is a carcinoid tumor?

low-grade malignant neuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms.

89

Describe the gross pathology of carcinoid tumors?

central small soft tan endobronchial polypoid mass or peripheral nodule.

90

Describe the microscopic pathology of typical carcinoid tumors.

arrangements of medium size cells with uniform round nuclei and a moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm, fewer than two mitoses per 10 high-power fields and no necrosis

91

Describe the microscopic pathology of atypical carcinoid tumors.

2-10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields and/or foci of necrosis, increased pleomorphism, more prominent nucleoli, more disorganized architecture and sometimes lymphatic invasion

92

How can you differentiate between utterly benign to viciously malignant neuroendocrine tumors?

-Increased mitoses
-Necrosis
-High % of cells expressing Ki67 (nuclear protein expressed in proliferating cells)

93

How do you treat carcinoid tumors?

surgery

94

What is the prognosis for carcinoid tumors?

good for typical carcinoid and okay for atypical carcinoids

95

What is mesothelioma?

malignant neoplasm of pleura (rarely pericardium or peritoneum).

96

Who gets mesothelioma?

uncommon but present in elderly white mails exposed to asbestosis (25-45 year latent period)

97

What is the most common genetic alteration in mesothelioma?

homozygous deletion of tumor supressor gene: CDKN2A/INK4a

98

What is the gross pathology of mesothelioma?

typically a thick layer of soft, gelatinous, grayish tumor arising either from visceral or parietal pleura, diffusely involving the pleura and associated with a large pleural effusion.

99

What are the 3 microscopic types of mesothelioma?

Epitheliod (60%)
Sarcomatoid (20%)
Mixed (20%)

100

What is the microscopic pathology of epitheloid mesothelioma?

cuboidal, columnar, or flattened cells forming tubular or papillary structures resembling an adenocarcinoma

101

What is the microscopic pathology of sarcomatoid mesothelioma?

spindle-shaped cells

102

Which form of mesothelioma will immunostain strong positive for keratins, calretinin, Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1), cytokeratin 5/6, and D2-40?

epitheloid type

103

Which form of mesothelioma will sometimes immunostain strong for only keratin?

sarcomatoid

104

How do you diagnose mesothelioma?

video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy