PATHOPHYS: Sleep Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PATHOPHYS: Sleep Medicine Deck (30):
1

What is the behavioral definition of normal sleep?*

a reversible state of perceptual disengagement from (and unresponsiveness to) the environment

2

What is normal sleep USUALLY accompanied by?*

Postural recumbency
Physical quiescence

3

How much of every day do we sleep?

around 8 hours

4

How many years of our life do we sleep?

25 years (so sleep takes up around 1/3 of our life--and this is important for many reasons)

5

What are some symptoms seen by sleep specialists?*

-Sleepiness
-Insomnia
-Snoring
-Abnormal behaviors
-Nightmares
-Abnormal movements

6

What is insomnia closely linked to?

depression

7

What things should you ask about during a patient's history in the sleep clinic?

medications
pain
medical conditions
depression
environmental "problems"
bed partner

8

What is mallampati?*

amount of airway obstruction

9

What is class 4 mallampati?

when you can see no glottis

10

Why is the mouth important to examine?

teeth grinding
airway
etc.

11

Who have more sleep problems, the young or the elderly?

elderly

12

What causes of morbidity and mortality can be caused by sleep deprivation?

-Car accidnets
-Cognitive harm
-CVD
-HTN
-CHF/PHTN
-A Fib

13

How is the heart linked to sleep?

sleep interruptions arouse the brain (giving increases in epinephrine) so that you do not get normal BP drop at night

14

How often do you have REM sleep?

every 90 minutes (and the periods of REM get longer as the night progresses)

15

What is REM sleep associated with?

muscle paralysis and brain activity is ON

16

What is the role of the thalamus in sleep? When you are awake?

produces disengagement during sleep

Awake: place where all sensory information stops before going to brain

17

What is the role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in sleep?

controls the "switch" of going to sleep at night and waking up in the morning

18

What are of the brain controls the "need" for sleep?

hypothalamus

19

What hormones are released when we are sleeping?

melatonin
growth hormone
prolactin
etc.

20

What is OHS?

obesity hypoventilation syndrome (people have CO2 retention at night and during hte day)

21

What is RLS?

restless leg syndrome

22

What is parasomnia?

movement/behavior during sleep

23

What causes periods of no breathing in sleep apnea?

hypoid bone is just attached to ligaments, so during REM sleep, when the muscles relax, the airway can collapse (usually collapse is correlated with weight gain pusing down on airway in neck)

24

What is the prevalence of men and women aged 30-60 with diagnosed sleep apnea?*

4% men
2% women

25

What percentage of people with sleep apnea are not diagnosed?

50%

26

What are the common symptoms of sleep apnea?

snoring + day time sleepiness

27

What is the treatment used for sleep apnea?

CPAP- cutaneous positive airway pressure

28

What is a multiple sleep latency test?

EEG defined sleep latency during 4-5 daytime naps

29

What is the Epworth sleepiness scale?

self-reported tendency to fall asleep in 8 different situations in their soporific nature

30

What are the major symptoms of narcolepsy?

Excessive daytime sleepiness
Cataplexy
Hypnagogic hallucinations
sleep paralysis