Pathoma Flashcards Preview

Pulmonary Week 3 > Pathoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathoma Deck (52)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are some common causes of nasal polyps?

-recurrent bouts of rhinitis
-CF
-aspirin-intolerant asthma

2

What is the triad of aspirin-intolerant asthma?

-asthma
-aspirin induced bronchospasms
-nasal polyps

3

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with what?

EBV

4

What patients classically get nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

African children and chinese adults

5

What type of H. flu is the most common cause of epiglottis?

B, especially in non immunized children

6

What disease is associated with 'seal-like barking'?

coupe (laryngotracheobronchitis)

7

What viruses can cause laryngeal papilloma?

HPV 6 and 11 (single nodules in adults and multiple in children)

8

What is pneumonia?

bacterial invasion of the parenchyma

9

How does pneumonia present?

-fever and chills
-rusty (bloody) sputum
-pleuritic chest pain
-elevated WBC

10

What are the patterns of pneumonia?

-bronchopneumonia
-lobar
-bronchial interstitial

11

What are the gross phases of lobar pneumonia?

-congestion
-red hepatization
-grey hepatization
-Resolution

12

What class makes up the most common cause of aspiration pneumonia?

gram negative enteric rods

13

What are some gram negative enteric rods that commonly cause aspiration pneumonia?

-Baceroides
-Fusobacterium

14

What are the abscess forming causative pneumonia bacteria?

-Klebsiella
-Staph aureus

15

What are two common causes of pneumonia in COPD patients?

Haemophilus influenzae
Moxaxella catarrhalis

16

What part of the lung does primary TB affect?

lower lobes and hillier lymph nodes

17

How does primary TB present?

generally asymptomatic, but results in a positive PPD

18

What is a Gohn complex?

-caseating necrosis
-hilar lymph nodes that undergoes fibrosis and calcification

19

How does secondary TB present?

-fevers and night sweats
-cough with hemoptysis
-weight loss

20

How does TLC change in obstructive disease?

increase due to air trapping

21

What Reid index finding suggests chronic bronchitis?

50%+

22

Smoking is a risk factor for _____ emphysema

centriacinar (upper lobes)

23

Why is A1AT associated with liver cirrhosis?

Mutant A1AT accumulates in the ER of hepatocytes resulting in liver damage

24

What would a biopsy of the liver show in panacinar emphysema?

PAS-positive globules

25

Pathogenesis of asthma

Type I hypersensitivity- allergens induce TH2 phenotype in CD4+ T cells of genetically susceptible individuals

26

What do these TH2 CD4+ T cells do?

TH2 secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10

27

What is a primary function of IL-4?

class switching to IgE

28

What is a primary function of IL-5?

chemotractant of eosinophils

29

What is a primary function of IL-10?

stimulates TH2 and inhibits TH1s

30

What does re-exposure to allergen cause?

IgE mediated mast cell degranulation