Flashcards in Pathoma Deck (52):
What are some common causes of nasal polyps?
-recurrent bouts of rhinitis
What is the triad of aspirin-intolerant asthma?
-aspirin induced bronchospasms
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with what?
What patients classically get nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
African children and chinese adults
What type of H. flu is the most common cause of epiglottis?
B, especially in non immunized children
What disease is associated with 'seal-like barking'?
What viruses can cause laryngeal papilloma?
HPV 6 and 11 (single nodules in adults and multiple in children)
What is pneumonia?
bacterial invasion of the parenchyma
How does pneumonia present?
-fever and chills
-rusty (bloody) sputum
-pleuritic chest pain
What are the patterns of pneumonia?
What are the gross phases of lobar pneumonia?
What class makes up the most common cause of aspiration pneumonia?
gram negative enteric rods
What are some gram negative enteric rods that commonly cause aspiration pneumonia?
What are the abscess forming causative pneumonia bacteria?
What are two common causes of pneumonia in COPD patients?
What part of the lung does primary TB affect?
lower lobes and hillier lymph nodes
How does primary TB present?
generally asymptomatic, but results in a positive PPD
What is a Gohn complex?
-hilar lymph nodes that undergoes fibrosis and calcification
How does secondary TB present?
-fevers and night sweats
-cough with hemoptysis
How does TLC change in obstructive disease?
increase due to air trapping
What Reid index finding suggests chronic bronchitis?
Smoking is a risk factor for _____ emphysema
centriacinar (upper lobes)
Why is A1AT associated with liver cirrhosis?
Mutant A1AT accumulates in the ER of hepatocytes resulting in liver damage
What would a biopsy of the liver show in panacinar emphysema?
Pathogenesis of asthma
Type I hypersensitivity- allergens induce TH2 phenotype in CD4+ T cells of genetically susceptible individuals
What do these TH2 CD4+ T cells do?
TH2 secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10
What is a primary function of IL-4?
class switching to IgE
What is a primary function of IL-5?
chemotractant of eosinophils
What is a primary function of IL-10?
stimulates TH2 and inhibits TH1s
What does re-exposure to allergen cause?
IgE mediated mast cell degranulation
What causes bronchiestasis?
necrotizing inflammation with damage to airway walls that cause them to permanently dilate
What are some common causes of bronchiectasis?
What is Kartagener syndrome?
inherited defect of the dynein arm, which is needed for cilia movement
What are the symptoms of Kartagener syndrome?
-infertility (sperm have no cilia)
-situs inversus (organs misplaced)
Restrictive diseases most commonly arise from what part of the lung?
Type of restrictive disease?
What is the likely cause of IPF?
cyclical lung injury which causes TGF-B release from injured pneumocytes and causes fibrosis
What drugs have been known to cause IPF?
What is Caplan syndrome?
association between R.A. and coal worker's pneumoconiosis
Asbestosis is common in what population?
What is the typically patient population for granulomas?
young AA females
What are often seen in the granulomas of sarcoidosis patients?
What are some things that might be elevated in sarcoidosis?
What is the normal PAP?
10 mm Hg
What is the most basic result of ARDS?
diffuse damage of the alveolar-capillary interface
What does diffuse damage of the alveolar-capillary interface cause in ARDS?
leakage of protein-rich exudate into the airways and the formation of hyaline membranes
What is used to screen for lung maturity if the risk of NRDS is there?
lecithin (component of surfactant): sphingomyelin ratio
lecithin levels increase as surfactant is produced, sphingomyelin ratio remains constant
What is a sufficient L:S ratio?
What are the risk factors of NRDS?
Why would maternal diabetes be a risk factor for NRDS?
Insulin reduces surfactant production
Pleural involvement is classically seen in what lung malignancy?