Flashcards in Pathoma Deck (52)
What are some common causes of nasal polyps?
-recurrent bouts of rhinitis
What is the triad of aspirin-intolerant asthma?
-aspirin induced bronchospasms
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with what?
What patients classically get nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
African children and chinese adults
What type of H. flu is the most common cause of epiglottis?
B, especially in non immunized children
What disease is associated with 'seal-like barking'?
What viruses can cause laryngeal papilloma?
HPV 6 and 11 (single nodules in adults and multiple in children)
What is pneumonia?
bacterial invasion of the parenchyma
How does pneumonia present?
-fever and chills
-rusty (bloody) sputum
-pleuritic chest pain
What are the patterns of pneumonia?
What are the gross phases of lobar pneumonia?
What class makes up the most common cause of aspiration pneumonia?
gram negative enteric rods
What are some gram negative enteric rods that commonly cause aspiration pneumonia?
What are the abscess forming causative pneumonia bacteria?
What are two common causes of pneumonia in COPD patients?
What part of the lung does primary TB affect?
lower lobes and hillier lymph nodes
How does primary TB present?
generally asymptomatic, but results in a positive PPD
What is a Gohn complex?
-hilar lymph nodes that undergoes fibrosis and calcification
How does secondary TB present?
-fevers and night sweats
-cough with hemoptysis
How does TLC change in obstructive disease?
increase due to air trapping
What Reid index finding suggests chronic bronchitis?
Smoking is a risk factor for _____ emphysema
centriacinar (upper lobes)
Why is A1AT associated with liver cirrhosis?
Mutant A1AT accumulates in the ER of hepatocytes resulting in liver damage
What would a biopsy of the liver show in panacinar emphysema?
Pathogenesis of asthma
Type I hypersensitivity- allergens induce TH2 phenotype in CD4+ T cells of genetically susceptible individuals
What do these TH2 CD4+ T cells do?
TH2 secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10
What is a primary function of IL-4?
class switching to IgE
What is a primary function of IL-5?
chemotractant of eosinophils
What is a primary function of IL-10?
stimulates TH2 and inhibits TH1s