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Pulmonary Week 3 > Pathoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathoma Deck (52):
1

What are some common causes of nasal polyps?

-recurrent bouts of rhinitis
-CF
-aspirin-intolerant asthma

2

What is the triad of aspirin-intolerant asthma?

-asthma
-aspirin induced bronchospasms
-nasal polyps

3

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with what?

EBV

4

What patients classically get nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

African children and chinese adults

5

What type of H. flu is the most common cause of epiglottis?

B, especially in non immunized children

6

What disease is associated with 'seal-like barking'?

coupe (laryngotracheobronchitis)

7

What viruses can cause laryngeal papilloma?

HPV 6 and 11 (single nodules in adults and multiple in children)

8

What is pneumonia?

bacterial invasion of the parenchyma

9

How does pneumonia present?

-fever and chills
-rusty (bloody) sputum
-pleuritic chest pain
-elevated WBC

10

What are the patterns of pneumonia?

-bronchopneumonia
-lobar
-bronchial interstitial

11

What are the gross phases of lobar pneumonia?

-congestion
-red hepatization
-grey hepatization
-Resolution

12

What class makes up the most common cause of aspiration pneumonia?

gram negative enteric rods

13

What are some gram negative enteric rods that commonly cause aspiration pneumonia?

-Baceroides
-Fusobacterium

14

What are the abscess forming causative pneumonia bacteria?

-Klebsiella
-Staph aureus

15

What are two common causes of pneumonia in COPD patients?

Haemophilus influenzae
Moxaxella catarrhalis

16

What part of the lung does primary TB affect?

lower lobes and hillier lymph nodes

17

How does primary TB present?

generally asymptomatic, but results in a positive PPD

18

What is a Gohn complex?

-caseating necrosis
-hilar lymph nodes that undergoes fibrosis and calcification

19

How does secondary TB present?

-fevers and night sweats
-cough with hemoptysis
-weight loss

20

How does TLC change in obstructive disease?

increase due to air trapping

21

What Reid index finding suggests chronic bronchitis?

50%+

22

Smoking is a risk factor for _____ emphysema

centriacinar (upper lobes)

23

Why is A1AT associated with liver cirrhosis?

Mutant A1AT accumulates in the ER of hepatocytes resulting in liver damage

24

What would a biopsy of the liver show in panacinar emphysema?

PAS-positive globules

25

Pathogenesis of asthma

Type I hypersensitivity- allergens induce TH2 phenotype in CD4+ T cells of genetically susceptible individuals

26

What do these TH2 CD4+ T cells do?

TH2 secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10

27

What is a primary function of IL-4?

class switching to IgE

28

What is a primary function of IL-5?

chemotractant of eosinophils

29

What is a primary function of IL-10?

stimulates TH2 and inhibits TH1s

30

What does re-exposure to allergen cause?

IgE mediated mast cell degranulation

31

What causes bronchiestasis?

necrotizing inflammation with damage to airway walls that cause them to permanently dilate

32

What are some common causes of bronchiectasis?

-CF
-Kartagener syndrome
-tumor
-necrotizing infection

33

What is Kartagener syndrome?

inherited defect of the dynein arm, which is needed for cilia movement

34

What are the symptoms of Kartagener syndrome?

-bronchiectasis
-sinusitis
-infertility (sperm have no cilia)
-situs inversus (organs misplaced)

35

Restrictive diseases most commonly arise from what part of the lung?

the interstitium

36

Type of restrictive disease?

-IDP
-Pneumoconioses
-Sarcoidosis
-Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

37

What is the likely cause of IPF?

cyclical lung injury which causes TGF-B release from injured pneumocytes and causes fibrosis

38

What drugs have been known to cause IPF?

-Bleomycin
-Amiodarone

39

What is Caplan syndrome?

association between R.A. and coal worker's pneumoconiosis

40

Asbestosis is common in what population?

-construction workers
-plumbers
-shipyard workers

41

What is the typically patient population for granulomas?

young AA females

42

What are often seen in the granulomas of sarcoidosis patients?

asteroid bodies

43

What are some things that might be elevated in sarcoidosis?

-serum ACE
-Hypercalcemia

44

What is the normal PAP?

10 mm Hg

45

What is the most basic result of ARDS?

diffuse damage of the alveolar-capillary interface

46

What does diffuse damage of the alveolar-capillary interface cause in ARDS?

leakage of protein-rich exudate into the airways and the formation of hyaline membranes

47

What is used to screen for lung maturity if the risk of NRDS is there?

lecithin (component of surfactant): sphingomyelin ratio

lecithin levels increase as surfactant is produced, sphingomyelin ratio remains constant

48

What is a sufficient L:S ratio?

2+

49

What are the risk factors of NRDS?

-prematurity
-C-section delivery
-Maternal diabetes

50

Why would maternal diabetes be a risk factor for NRDS?

Insulin reduces surfactant production

51

Pleural involvement is classically seen in what lung malignancy?

adenocarcinoma

52

What kind of pneumothorax shows deviation of the trachea to the side of the injury?

spontaneous (tension= away)