Patient Care Week 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Patient Care Week 4 Deck (27)
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1
Q

Who is susceptible to infection?

A
  • patients
  • run-down health care workers
  • anyone with compromised health
2
Q

Immunocompromised patients

A
  • neutropenia
  • HIV
  • hepatitis A,B and C virus
  • leukemia
  • tuberculosis
  • radiation therapy
  • chemo therapy
  • age related
  • heredity
  • nutritional status
  • stress
  • inadequate rest/exercise
  • health history: diabetes, heart disease, liver or kidney failure and lung disease
3
Q

3 major lines of defense against disease

A
  1. Hair, skin, mucous membranes, tears
  2. Inflammatory reaction( white blood cells ingest invading particles)
  3. Immune system(antibodies react to specific antigens aka. Foreign bodies)
    • organ transplant patients
4
Q

It is one of the RT’s responsibilities to prevent the spread of infection…

A
  • from patient to patient
  • from patient to personnel
  • from hospital to ones home environment
5
Q

What is asepsis?

A

To be free of infection

Use of aseptic technique
- means to carry out procedures that control the growth and spread of microorganisms(mo’s)

6
Q

What is medical asepsis?

A

Refers to the destruction of mo’s after they leave the body

We use medical asepsis every day

  • at home when we wash our hands, wash dishes, and disinfect bathrooms
  • isolation is a form of medical asepsis
7
Q

What is surgical asepsis?

A

Refers to the destruction of mo’s and their spores, before they enter the body
- I.e. Skin prep before surgery

8
Q

What is a microorganism?

A

A microscopic organism

Includes bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions(proteins) and Protozoa

9
Q

What is a bacteria?

A

Single-called mo’s that rapidly divide

10
Q

What is a virus?

A

The smallest sub cellular microorganism known

It has DNA

11
Q

What are prions?

A

The smallest microbe discovered in 1983

Does not have DNA

Proteins

12
Q

What are fungi?

A

A group such as mushrooms, yeast and molds that reproduce through spores

13
Q

What are spores?

A

Forms of bacteria that are relatively resistant to

  • heat
  • cold
  • lack of water
  • toxic chemicals
  • radiation
14
Q

What are Protozoa?

A

Subkingdom comprised of unicellular organisms

Most are free-living, but some lead mutualistic, communalistic, or parasitic lives

Can be ingested and transmitted through contaminated feces

Hand-washing and stool precautions recommended

15
Q

What is rickettsiae (singular: Rickettsia)?

A
  • specific shape
  • multiply only in host cells
  • live in gut lumen of fleas, ticks, lice and mites
  • transmitted through bites
  • low incidence in sanitized areas where rodent and insect populations are controlled
  • aka: valley fever, typhus fever or Rocky Mountain spotted fever
16
Q

Requirements for M.O survival

A

Warmth
Food
Water or moisture
Usually 02 (some are anaerobic)

Thrive in dark and damp areas

17
Q

What is an endogenous infection?

A

An infection produced within or caused by factors within the organism

Examples:

Infection caused by normal bacteria in the digestive tract

Reactivity on of organism present in a dormant state such as TB

18
Q

What is an ectogenous infection?

A

An infection caused by organisms not normally found in the body; the mo’s have gained entrance into the body

19
Q

What is a nosocomial infection?

A

An infection acquired during hospitalization (staph, respiratory virus, etc)

  • about 10% of patients hospitalized become infected (~2 million/yr)
  • common sites: urinary tract, respiratory tract, surgical wounds
  • 30% UTI’s per year
  • HAI: hospital acquired infection
20
Q

What is the RT’s role in minimizing nosocomial infections?

A
  1. Cleanliness( cleaning, dusting, hand washing, etc)
  2. Disinfection: the destruction of pathogens using chemicals
  3. Sterilization(surgical asepsis): the destruction of all organisms and their spores using heat, gas, or chemicals to make them germ free
21
Q

What are the six factors in the cycle of infection?

A
  • pathogenic organism (infectious agent)- MO’s capable of causing disease
  • reservoir of infection- human being, food, water, plant, etc
  • portal of exit- route through which blood, body fluids, excretions leave the body
  • means of transmission- direct or indirect
  • portal of entry- wound,nose,mouth,intestines,urinary tract
  • susceptible host
22
Q

What are the four main routes of transmission and the two categories they fall in?

A

Direct contact: the host is touched directly by the infected person or animal
• vector: an animal in whose body the infectious organism lives and multiplies
- mosquitos- malaria
- fleas- bubonic plague
- ticks- lyme’s disease
- dogs, bats- rabies

Indirect contact:
• fomite: an object that has been contaminated with infectious organisms
• vehicle: any medium that transports microorganisms
• airborne transmission
• spores: especially hazardous because they can live under adverse conditions

23
Q

What is the CDC?

A

The centers for disease control

Responsible for setting standards regarding transmissible diseases
• Ebola virus
• mad cow

24
Q

Define asepsis

A

To be free of infection

25
Q

Define aseptic technique

A

To carry out procedures that controls the growth and spread of microorganisms.

26
Q

Define Surgical asepsis

A

Refers to the destruction of mo’s and their spores, before they enter the body. Used in caring for open wounds in surgery. Sterilization is required here. Surgical asepsis is used to prevent mo’s from entering the body.

27
Q

Microorganism

A

A microscopic organism.