Positioning 1- Chapter 3 General anatomy and radiographic positioning terminology Flashcards Preview

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1
Q

What is Osteology?

A

Osteology is the detailed study of the body of knowledge related to the bones of the body.

2
Q

What are the four fundamental body planes?

A

Sagittal
Coronal
Horizontal
Oblique

3
Q

Describe the Sagittal plane

A

A sagittal plane divides the entire body or a body part into right and left segments. The plane passes vertically through the body from front to back. The midsagittal plane is a specific sagittal plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left halves

4
Q

Describe the coronal plane

A

A coronal plane divides the entire body or a body part into anterior and posterior segments. The plane passes through the body vertically from one side to the other. The midcoronal plane is a specific coronal plane that passes through the midline of the body, dividing it into equal anterior and posterior halves . This plane is sometimes referred to as the midaxillary plane.

5
Q

Describe the horizontal plane

A

A horizontal plane passes crosswise through the body or a body part at right angles to the longitudinal axis. It is positioned at a right angle to the sagittal and coronal planes. This plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions. Often it is referred to as a transverse, axial, or cross-sectional plane.

6
Q

Describe the oblique plane

A

An oblique plane can pass through a body part at any angle among the three previously described planes. Planes are used in radiographic positioning to center a body part to the image receptor (IR) or central ray and to ensure that the body part is properly oriented and aligned with the IR. The midsagittal plane may be centered and perpendicular to the IR, with the long axis of the IR parallel to the same plane. Planes can also be used to guide projections of the central ray. The central ray for an anteroposterior (AP) projection passes through the body part parallel to the sagittal plane and perpendicular to the coronal plane. Quality imaging requires attention to all relationships among body planes, the IR, and the central ray.
Body planes are used in computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US) to identify the orientation of anatomic cuts or slices shown in the procedure. Imaging in several planes is often used to show large sections of anatomy.

7
Q

Two special planes are used in radiographic positioning. These planes are localized to a specific area of the body only. What are these special planes?

A

Interilliac

Occlusal

8
Q

Describe the Interiliac plane

A

The interiliac plane transects the pelvis at the top of the iliac crests at the level of the fourth lumbar spinous process. It is used in positioning the lumbar spine, sacrum, and coccyx.

9
Q

Describe the Occlusal Plane

A

The occlusal plane is formed by the biting surfaces of the upper and lower teeth with the jaws closed. It is used in positioning of the odontoid process and in some head projections.

10
Q

What are the two great cavities of the torso?

A

The thoracic and the abdominal

11
Q

The thoracic cavity is subdivided into…

A

A pericardial segment and two pleural portions

12
Q

Although the abdominal cavity has no intervening partition, the lower portion is called the…

A

Pelvic cavity

Abdominal and pelvic cavities together are referred to as the abdominopelvic cavity

13
Q

What are the principle structures located in the thoracic cavity?

A
  • pleural Membranes
  • Lungs
  • trachea
  • esophagus
  • Pericardium
  • heart and great vessels
14
Q

What are the principle structures in the Abdominal cavity?

A
  • Peritoneum
  • liver
  • gallbladder
  • Pancreas
  • Spleen
  • Stomach
  • intestines
  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Major Blood Vessels
  • Pelvic Portion: rectum, urinary bladder, and parts of the reproductive system
15
Q

What are the four clinical divisions(quadrants) of the abdomen?

A
  • Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
  • Right lower Quadrant (RLQ)
  • Left lower Quadrant (LUQ)
  • Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
16
Q

What are the nine regions of the abdomen?

A

Superior
• Right hypochondrium
• Epigastrium
• Left Hypochaondrium

Middle
• Right lateral
• Umbilical
• Left Lateral

Inferior
• Right inguinal
• Hypogastrium
• Left Inguinal

17
Q

What is anatomy?

A

The term applied to the science of the structure of the body

18
Q

What is physiology?

A

The study of the function of the body organs

19
Q

The Saginaw plane divides the body into…

A

Right and left segments, passing vertically from front to back

20
Q

Midsagital plane(MSP) is a specific sagittal plane that…

A

Passes through midline and divides the body into equal right and left halves

21
Q

Coronal planes pass through the body..

A

Vertically from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts

22
Q

Mid coronal plane(MCP), also called midaxillary plane, is the specific plane that…

A

Passes through midline and divides the body into equal anterior and posterior halves

23
Q

Horizontal planes pass…

A

Crosswise through the body or body part at right angles to the longitudinal axis

  • positioned at right angle to sagittal and coronal planes
  • divides the body into superior and inferior portions
  • also called transverse, axial, or cross-sectional planes
24
Q

Oblique planes pass through a body part…

A

At any angle between the sagittal, coronal, or horizontal planes

25
Q

Interiliac plane transects the body at…

A

The top of the iliac crests (level of L4)

26
Q

Occlusal plane formed by the…

A

Biting surfaces of the upper and lower teeth with jaws closed

27
Q

What are the divisions of the abdomen?

A
• Bordered superiorly by diaphragm
• bordered inferiority by superior pelvic aperture(pelvic inlet)
• abdomen divided in two methods
  -quadrants
  -regions
28
Q

Which body plane passes through the body from anterior to posterior and divides the body into equal rights and left halves?

A. Midsagittal
B. Midcoronal
C. Midaxillary
D. Midtransverse

A

A. Midsagittal

29
Q

In which quadrant of the abdomen is the largest portion of the liver located?

A. Right upper
B. Left upper
C. Right lower
D. Left lower

A

A. Right upper

30
Q

The detailed study of the body of knowledge relating to the bones of the body defines?

A. Anatomy
B. Arthrology
C. Osteology
D. Pathology

A

C. Osteology

31
Q

What is body habitus?

A

Defined as the common variations in the shape of the human body

Important in radiography because habitus determines size, shape, and position of organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities

32
Q

What organs are affected by body habitus?

A
  • heart
  • lungs
  • diaphragm
  • stomach
  • colon
  • gallbladder
33
Q

What are the four types of body habitus?

A
  • sthenic =50%
  • hyposthenic = 35%
  • asthenic = 10%
  • hypersthenic = 5%

Sthenic and hyposthenic are considered average

Hypersthenic and asthenic are the extremes

34
Q

Osteology covers…

A
  • skeletal divisions
  • general bone features
  • bone development
  • classification of bones
35
Q

Bone functions

A
  • attachment for muscles
  • mechanical basis for movement
  • protection of internal organs
  • support frame for body
  • storage for calcium, phosphorus, and other salts
  • production of red and white blood cells
36
Q

Skeletal divisions

A

• total of 206 bones in the body
• divided into two main groups
- axial skeleton (80 bones)
- appendicular skeleton (126 bones)
• axial skeleton supports and protects the head and trunk
• appendicular skeleton provides means for movement

37
Q

What is the function of the axial skeleton?

A

Supports and protects the head and trunk

38
Q

What is the function of the appendicular skeleton?

A

Provides means for movement

39
Q

General bone features

A

• Compact bone
- strong dense outer layer
• Spongy bone
- inner, less dense layer
- contains a speculated network called trabeculae
• Trabeculae filled with red and yellow marrow
• Red marrow produces red and white blood cells
• yellow marrow stores fat cells
• Medullary cavity
- central cavity of long bones
- contains trabeculae filled with yellow marrow
- red marrow found in ends of long bones
• periosteum
- tough, fibrous connective tissue that covers bone, except at articulate ends
• endosteum
- lines marrow cavity

40
Q

Describe compact bone

A

Strong, dense outer layer

41
Q

Describe spongy bone

A

Inner less dense layer that contains a spiculated network called trabeculae

42
Q

Trabeculae is filled with…

A

Red and yellow marrow

43
Q

Red marrow produces…

A

Red and white blood cells

44
Q

Yellow marrow stores

A

Fat cells

45
Q

Describe the medullary cavity

A

The central cavity of long bones that contains trabeculae filled with yellow marrow.

Red marrow is found in the ends of long bones

46
Q

Red marrow is found…

A

In the ends of long bones

47
Q

What is the periosteum?

A

Tough fibrous connective tissue that covers bone, except at articulate ends

48
Q

What is the endosteum?

A

Lines marrow cavity

49
Q

What are the bone classifications?

A
  • long
  • short
  • flat
  • irregular
  • sesamoid
50
Q

Describe long bones

A

Found only in limbs

Consist of body and two enlarged articulate ends

Example: femur and humerus

51
Q

Describe short bones

A

Consist mainly of cancellous bone with a thin outer layer of compact bone

Example: carpal bones

52
Q

Describe flat bones

A

Consist of two plates of compact bones

Middle layer of cancellous bone called diploe

Examples: sternum and cranium

53
Q

Describe irregular bones

A

Are peculiarly shaped

Examples: vertebrae and facial bones

54
Q

Describe sesamoid bones

A

Very small and oval

Develop inside and beside tendons

Protect the tendon from excessive wear

Largest is patella

55
Q

Which of the following is an example of a flat bone?

A. Femur
B. Radius
C. Clavicle
D. Scapula

A

D. Scapula

56
Q

All of the following are functions of the skeleton, except:

A. Attachment for muscles
B. Storage for calcium, phosphorus, and other salts
C. Production of minerals
D. Production of red and white blood cells

A

C. Production of minerals

57
Q

Which of the following can be palpated to locate T7?

A. Jugular notch
B. Sternal angle
C. Inferior angle of the scapula
D. Xiphoid process

A

C. Inferior angle of the scapula

58
Q

What is arthrology?

A

Defined as the study of joints, or articulation so between bones

Classified in two ways
• functional
• structural

59
Q

What are the three subdivisions of the functional classification in arthrology?

A
  • synarthroses = immoveable
  • amphiarthroses = slightly moveable
  • diarthroses = freely moveable
60
Q

What are the three distinct groups in the structural classification of Arthrology based on connective tissues?

A
  • fibrous
  • cartilaginous
  • synovial
61
Q

Describe synovial joints

A
• permit wide range of motion;  freely moveable
• complex joints
• enclosed by articulate capsule
• many have accessory soft tissues
   - meniscus
   - bursae
62
Q

What are the six types of synovial joints?

A
  • gliding
  • hinge
  • pivot
  • ellipsoid
  • saddle
  • ball and socket
63
Q

Describe the gliding joint

A
  • simplest synovial joint

* examples: intercarpal and intertarsal joints

64
Q

Describe the hinge joint

A
  • permits flex ion and extension only

* examples: elbow and knee

65
Q

Describe the pivot joint

A
  • allows rotation around single axis

* example: atlantoaxial joint (C1-C2 joint)

66
Q

Describe the ellipsoid joint

A
  • allows flex ion, abdusction, adduction, and circumduction

* example: radiocarpal (wrist) joint

67
Q

Describe the saddle joint

A
  • allows movement similar to ellipsoid
  • difference is in the shape of the articular surfaces
  • example: carpometacarpal joint between trapezium and first metacarpal
68
Q

Describe the ball and socket joint

A
  • permits widest range of motion

* examples: hip and shoulder

69
Q

Which of the following joint classifications is freely moveable?

A. Amphiarthroses
B. Synarthroses
C. Diarthroses
D. Synovial

A

C. Diarthroses

70
Q

Bone markings and features

A
• Processes and projections
   - extend beyond and project out from the main body of a bone
• depressions
   - hallow or depressed areas
• fractures
   - a break in the bone
71
Q

Processes and projections

Condyle

A

Rounded process at an articular end

72
Q

Processes and projections

Caracoid or coronoid

A

Beaklike or crownlike process

73
Q

Processes and projections

Crest

A

Ridgelike process

74
Q

Processes and projections

Epicondyle

A

Projection above a condyle

75
Q

Processes and projections

Facet

A

Small, smooth-surfaced articular process

76
Q

Processes and projections

Hamulus

A

Hook-shaped process

77
Q

Processes and projections

Head

A

Expanded end of a long bone

78
Q

Processes and projections

Horn

A

Hornlike process

79
Q

Processes and projections

Line

A

Linear elevation’ not as prominent as a crest

80
Q

Processes and projections

Malleolus

A

Club-shaped process

81
Q

Processes and projections

Protuberance

A

Projecting prominence

82
Q

Processes and projections

Spine

A

Sharp process

83
Q

Processes and projections

Styloid

A

Long, pointed process

84
Q

Processes and projections

Trochanter

A

Either of the two large, rounded, and elevated processes of the proximal femur

85
Q

Processes and projections

Tubercle

A

Small ,rounded, and elevated process

86
Q

Processes and projections

Tuberosity

A

Large, rounded, and elevated process

87
Q

Depressions

Fissure

A

Cleft or deep groove

88
Q

Depressions

Foramen

A

Hole in a bone for transmission of vessels and nerves

89
Q

Depressions

Fossa

A

Pit, fovea, or hollow space

90
Q

Depressions

Groove

A

Shallow linear channel

91
Q

Depressions

Meatus

A

Tubelike passageway

92
Q

Depressions

Notch

A

Indentation in the border of a bone

93
Q

Depressions

Sinus

A

Recess, groove, cavity, or hallow space

94
Q

Depressions

Sulcus

A

Furrow or trench

95
Q

What types of fractures are there

A
  • closed
  • open
  • nondisplaced
  • displaced
96
Q

Common classifications of fractures

A
  • compression
  • compound (open)
  • simple
  • greenstick
  • transverse
  • spiral or oblique
  • comminuted
  • impacted

Many fractures fall into more than one category

97
Q

Which of the following is defined as a hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves?

A. Fissure
B. Groove
C. Sinus
D. Foramen

A

D. Foramen

98
Q

Anterior (ventral)

A

Forward or front part of the body or of a part

99
Q

Posterior (dorsal)

A

Back part of body or part

100
Q

Caudad

A

Parts away from the head of the body

101
Q

Cephalad

A

Parts toward the head

102
Q

Superior

A

Nearer the head or situated above

103
Q

Inferior

A

Nearer the feet or situated below

104
Q

Central

A

Mid area or main part of an organ

105
Q

Peripheral

A

At or near the surface, edge, or outside of another body part

106
Q

Medial

A

Toward the median plane of the body or toward the middle of a body part

107
Q

Lateral

A

Away from the median plane or away from the middle of a part

108
Q

Superficial

A

Near the skin or surface

109
Q

Deep

A

Far from the surface

110
Q

Distal

A

Farthest from the point of attachment or origin

111
Q

Proximal

A

Nearer to the point of attachment or origin

112
Q

External

A

Outside the body or part

113
Q

Internal

A

Inside the body or part

114
Q

Parietal

A

The wall or lining of a body cavity

115
Q

Visceral

A

The covering of an organ

116
Q

Ipsilateral

A

Parts on the same side of the body

117
Q

Contralateral

A

Parts on the opposite side of the body

118
Q

Palmar

A

Palm of the hand

119
Q

Plantar

A

Sole of the foot

120
Q

Dorsum

A

Anterior, or top, of the foot or back of the hand

121
Q

Radiographic positioning terminology

Projection

A

Defined as the path of the CR(central Ray) as it exits the X-ray tube, passing through the patient to the IR(image receptor)

Identified by the entrance and exit points of the body

122
Q

Radiographic positioning terminology

Position

A

Overall posture of the patient or general body position

Also refers to the specific placement of the body or part in relation to the table or IR

123
Q

Radiographic positioning terminology

View

A

Used to describe the body part as seen by the IR

Exact opposite of projection, the preferred term in the United States

124
Q

Radiographic positioning terminology

Method

A

Refers to a specific radiographic projection developed by an individual

125
Q

AP

A

CR enters in the anterior surface and exits the posterior

126
Q

PA

A

CR enters the posterior surface and exits the anterior

127
Q

Axial

A

Longitudinal angle of the CR of 10 degrees or more

128
Q

Tangential

A

CR directed along the outer margin of a curved body surface

129
Q

Lateral

A

CR enters one side of the body, passing transversely along the coronal plane

130
Q

Oblique

A

CR enters from side angle

Entrance and exit surfaces still specified (e.g. , AP oblique)

131
Q

General body positions

Upright

A

Erect or vertical

132
Q

General body positions

Seated

A

Upright, but sitting on a stool

133
Q

General body positions

Recumbent

A

Lying down in any position

134
Q

General body positions

Supine

A

Lying on the back

135
Q

General body positions

Prone

A

Lying face down

136
Q

General body positions

Trendelenburgs position

A

Supine with the head lower than the feet

137
Q

General body positions

Fowlers position

A

Supine with the head elevated

138
Q

General body positions

Sim’s position

A

Recumbent with patient lying on left anterior side with left leg extended and right knee and thigh partially flexed

139
Q

General body positions

Lithotomy position

A

Supine with knees and hips flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports

140
Q

General body positions

Lateral position

A

Named according to the side of the patient that is placed closer to the IR

141
Q

Oblique position

A

Body is rotated so that the coronal plane is not parallel with the table or IR

Angle of rotation is specific for anatomy of interest

Named according to side and surface of body closer to table or IR

Abbreviations: RPO, LPO, RAO, and LAO

142
Q

Decubitus position

A

Recumbent position with a horizontal CR

Named according to the body surface on which the patient is lying

143
Q

Lordotic position

A

Upright position in which the patient is leaning backward

144
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Abduct or Abduction

A

Movement of a part away from the central axis of the body

145
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Adduct or adduction

A

Movement of a part toward the central axis of the body

146
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Extension

A

Straightening of a joint

147
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Flexion

A

Bending do a joint

148
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Hyperextension

A

Forced or excessive extension

149
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Hyperflexion

A

Forced overflexion

150
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Evert/eversion

A

Outward turning of the foot at the ankle

151
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Invert/inversion

A

Inward turning of the foot at the ankle

152
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Pronate/pronation

A

Rotation of forearm so that the palm is down

153
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Supinate/supination

A

Rotation of forearm so that the palm is up

154
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Rotate/rotation

A

Turning of the body or part around its axis

Rotation of a limb is either medial(toward midline) or lateral (away from midline)

155
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Circumduction

A

Circular movement of a limb

156
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Tilt

A

Tipping or slanting a body part slightly

157
Q

Body Movement Terminology

Deviation

A

A turning away from the regular or standard course

158
Q

Define anatomy

A

The science of the structure of the body

159
Q

Define physiology

A

The study of the function of the body organs

160
Q

Define osteology

A

The detailed study of the body of knowledge relating to the bones of the body

161
Q

Describe the anatomic position

A

Body standing erect, face and eyes directed forward, arms extended by the sides with the palms of the hands facing forward, heels together, and the toes pointing anteriorly with the great toes touching

162
Q

List the four fundamental planes of the body

A

Sagittal
Coronal
Horizontal
Oblique

163
Q

Any plane passing vertically through the body from front to back and dividing the body into right and left segments is called a(n)____________ plane.

A

Sagittal

164
Q

Any plane passing vertically through the body from side to side and dividing the body into anterior and posterior segments is called a(n)_____________ plane

A

Coronal

165
Q

The plane that passes vertically through the midline of the body from side to side and divides the body into equal anterior and posterior segments is called the ________________plane

A

Midcoronal

Also referred to as the midaxillary plane

166
Q

The plane passing through the midline of the body and dividing it into equal right and left halves is known as the_________________plane

A

Midsagittal

167
Q

A plane that passes crosswise through the body and divides the body into superior and inferior segments is a(n)______________plane or______________plane

A

Horizontal, transverse, axial

168
Q

What are the two major cavities of the torso

A

Thoracic and abdominal

169
Q

What structures are found in the thoracic cavity?

A

Lungs
Heart
Trachea
Esophagus

170
Q

What structures are found in the abdominal cavity?

A

Liver
Spleen
Ureters

171
Q

What structures are found in the pelvic cavity?

A

Uterus
Rectum
Ovaries

172
Q

What landmark corresponds to C1?

A

Mastoid tip

173
Q

What landmark corresponds to c3, C4?

A

Hyoid bone

174
Q

What landmark corresponds to C5?

A

Thyroid cartilage

175
Q

What landmark corresponds to C7, T1?

A

Vertebra prominens

176
Q

What landmark corresponds to T2, T3?

A

Level of jugular notch

177
Q

What landmark corresponds to T4, T5?

A

Level of the sternal angle

178
Q

What landmark corresponds to T7?

A

Level of the inferior angles of scapulae

179
Q

What landmark corresponds to T9, T10?

A

Level of xiphoid process

180
Q

What landmark corresponds to L2,L3?

A

Inferior costal margin

181
Q

What landmark corresponds to L4, L5?

A

Level of superior most aspect of iliac crest

182
Q

What landmark corresponds to S1, S2?

A

Level of anterior superior iliac spines

183
Q

What landmark corresponds to coccyx?

A

Level of pubic symphysis

184
Q

How many bones comprise the typical adult skeleton?

A

206

185
Q

List the two main skeletal divisions that make up the bony framework of the body.

A

Appendicular

Axial

186
Q

What are the four main parts of the appendicular skeleton?

A. Ribs
B. Pelvic girdle
C. Shoulder girdle
D. Vertebral column
E. Upper limbs (extremities)
F. Lower limbs (extremities)
A

B
C
E
F

187
Q

Circle the four main parts of the axial skeleton.

A. Neck
B. Skull
C. Thorax
D. Vertebral column
E. Upper limbs (extremities)
F. Lower limbs (extremities)
A

A
B
C
D

188
Q

What is the outer layer of bony tissue?

A

Compact bone

189
Q

what is the Inner trabeculated portion of the bone?

A

Spongy bone

190
Q

What is the central cylindrical canal of long bones?

A

Medullary cavity

191
Q

What is the tough, fibrous membrane that covers the bone (except where bone is covered by articular cartilage)?

A

Periosteum

192
Q

What are the five classifications of bones?

A
Flat
Long
Short
Irregular
Sesmoid
193
Q

What kind of bone is the Tibia?

A

Long bone

194
Q

What kind of bone is the Lunate?

A

Short bone

195
Q

What kind of bone is the radius?

A

Long bone

196
Q

What kind of bone is patella?

A

Sesamoid

197
Q

What kind of bone is the scapula?

A

Flat bone

198
Q

What kind of bone is the maxilla?

A

Irregular bone

199
Q

What kind of bone is the vertebrae?

A

Irregular bone

200
Q

Define long bone

A

Long bones consist of a body and two articular ends

201
Q

Define short bone

A

Short bones consist mainly of spongy tissue and have only a thin outer layer of compact bone

202
Q

Define flat bone

A

Flat bones consist mainly of compact bone in the form of two plates that enclose a layer of spongy tissue

203
Q

Define irregular bone

A

Irregular bones, because of their peculiar shape, cannot be classified as long, short, or flat bones

204
Q

Define Sesamoid bone

A

Sesamoid bones are small oval bones that develop in and near tendons and function to protect tendons from excessive wear.

205
Q

List the two classifications of joints.

A

Functional

Structural

206
Q

List the three structural classifications of articulations

A

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

207
Q

What kind of movement does a synovial joint have?

A

Freely movable

208
Q

What kind of movement does a fibrous joint have?

A

Immovable

209
Q

What kind of movement does a cartilaginous joint have?

A

Limited or slight movement

210
Q

Define Bursae

A

Fluid-containing sacs that are interposed between sliding surfaces to reduce friction

211
Q

Define meniscus

A

Fibrocartilaginous disk pad located between the ends of bones in some synovial joints

212
Q

Define symphysis

A

Joining together of two midline bones in the body by a plate of fibrocartilage

213
Q

Define synovial fluid

A

Lubricant and nutrient compound found within synovial joints

214
Q

Define synchondrosis

A

Joint in which two bones are joined by hyaline cartilage

215
Q

Define articular capsule

A

Fibrous envelope that encloses a synovial joint

216
Q

What kind of movement does a gliding (plane) synovial joint have?

A

Sliding

Gliding

217
Q

What kind of movement does a hinge (ginglymus) synovial joint have?

A

Flexion

Extension

218
Q

What kind of movement does a pivot (trochoid) synovial joint have?

A

Rotation

219
Q

What kind of movement does a ellipsoid (condyloid) synovial joint have?

A
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction 
Circumduction
220
Q

What kind of movement does a saddle (sellar) synovial joint have?

A
Flexion 
Extension
Abduction
Adduction 
Circumduction
221
Q

What kind of movement does a ball and socket (spheroid) synovial joint have?

A
Flexion 
Extension
Rotation
Abduction
Adduction 
Circumduction
222
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, the hip, have?

A

Ball and socket (spheroid)

223
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, the knee, have?

A

Hinge (ginglymus)

224
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, the elbow, have?

A

Hinge (ginglymus)

225
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, the wrist, have?

A

Ellipsoid (condyloid)

226
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, the shoulder, have?

A

Ball and socket (spheroid)

227
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, c1 and c2, have?

A

Pivot (trochoid)

228
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, intertarsal, have?

A

Gliding (plane)

229
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, interphalangeal, have?

A

Hinge(ginglymus)

230
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, metacarpophalangeal, have?

A

Ellipsoid (condyloid)

231
Q

What articulation does the synovial type joint, carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, have?

A

Saddle(sellar)

232
Q

Fossa

A

Pit, fovea, or hollow

233
Q

Sinus

A

Recess, groove, cavity, or hollow space

234
Q

Sulcus

A

Furrow, trench, or fissurelike depression

235
Q

Groove

A

Shallow, linear depression

236
Q

Fissure

A

Cleft or groove

237
Q

Foramen

A

Hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves

238
Q

Spine

A

Sharp process

239
Q

Protuberance

A

Bony projection

240
Q

Coracoid

A

Beaklike process

241
Q

Crest

A

Ridgelike process

242
Q

Malleolus

A

Club-shaped process

243
Q

Hamulus

A

Hook-shaped process

244
Q

Styloid

A

Long, pointed process

245
Q

Epicondyle

A

Projection above a condyle

246
Q

Horn

A

Hornlike process ion a bone

247
Q

Head

A

Expanded end of a long bone

248
Q

Tubercle

A

Small, rounded, elevated process

249
Q

Tuberosity

A

Large, rounded, elevated process

250
Q

Condyle

A

Rounded process at an articular extremity

251
Q

Facet

A

Small, smooth-surfaced, process for articulation

252
Q

Trochanter

A

Large, rounded, elevated process located at the junction of the neck and shaft of the femur

253
Q

Refers to the sole of the feet

A

Plantar

254
Q

Refers to the palm of the hand

A

Palmar

255
Q

Refers to the covering of an organ

A

Visceral

256
Q

Refers to parts far from the surface

A

Deep

257
Q

Refers to a part near the skin or surface

A

Superficial

258
Q

Refers to nearer the feet or situated below

A

Inferior

259
Q

Refers to nearer the head or situated above

A

Superior

260
Q

Refers to parts toward the head of the body

A

Cephalad

261
Q

Refers to a part on the same side of the body

A

Ipsilateral

262
Q

Refers to the back part of the body or an organ

A

Posterior, dorsal

263
Q

Refers to parts away from the head of the body

A

Caudad

264
Q

Refers to the middle area or main part of the organ

A

Central

265
Q

Refers to a part within or on the inside of an organ

A

Internal

266
Q

Refers to a part or parts on the opposite side of the body

A

Contralateral

267
Q

Refers to a part outside of an organ or on the outside of the body

A

External

268
Q

Refers to parts at or near the surface, edge, or outside

A

Peripheral

269
Q

Refers to the forward or front part of the body or to the forward part of the organ

A

Anterior, ventral

270
Q

Refers to parts toward the median plane of the body or toward the middle of a body part

A

Medial

271
Q

Refers to parts nearest the point of attachment, point of reference, origin, or beginning

A

Proximal

272
Q

Refers to parts farthest from the point of attachment, point of reference, origin, or beginning

A

Distal

273
Q

Refers to the top or anterior surface of the foot or to the back or posterior surface of the hand

A

Dorsum

274
Q

Refers to parts away from the median plane of the body or away from the middle of a part to the right or the left

A

Lateral

275
Q

Define Tilt

A

Movement of a part so that the sagittal (longitudinal) plane is angled so that it is not parallel with the long axis of the body

276
Q

Define rotate

A

To turn around an axis

277
Q

Define flexion

A

Bending movement of a joint whereby the angle between contiguous bones is diminished

278
Q

Define pronate

A

To turn the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces backward

279
Q

Define eversion

A

Movement of the foot when it is turned outward at the ankle joint

280
Q

Define supinate

A

To turn the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces forward

281
Q

Define deviation

A

A turning away from the regular standard course

282
Q

Define extension

A

Straightening of a joint

283
Q

Define inversion

A

Movement of the foot when it is turned inward at the ankle joint

284
Q

Define abduction

A

Movement of a part away from the central axis of a body or body part

285
Q

Define adduction

A

Movement of a part toward the central axis of a body or body part

286
Q

Define hyperflexion

A

Forced or excessive flexion of a joint or part

287
Q

Define circumduction

A

Circular movement of a limb

288
Q

Define hyperextension

A

Forced or excessive straightening of a joint

289
Q

Define Dorsiflexion

A

Flexion of the foot toward the leg