Positioning 1: Abdomen Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Positioning 1: Abdomen Deck (18)
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1
Q

Abdominopelvic cavity extends from…

A

Diaphragm to bony pelvis

2
Q

Abdominopelvic cavity consists of two parts

A

Abdominal cavity, the larger superior cavity

Pelvic cavity

3
Q

Abdominal cavity contains…

A
  • stomach
  • small intestines
  • large intestines
  • liver
  • gallbladder
  • spleen
  • pancreas
  • kidneys
4
Q

Pelvic cavity contains…

A
  • rectum
  • sigmoid
  • urinary bladder
  • reproductive organs
5
Q

What is the peritoneum?

A

Double walled membranous sac that encloses the cavity
• inner layer- visceral peritoneum
• outer layer- parietal peritoneum

Retroperitoneum- space behind peritoneum
- kidneys and pancreas lie in this space

6
Q

Which of the following is located in the abdominal cavity?

A. Rectum
B. Urinary bladder
C. Ovaries
D. Spleen

A

D. Spleen

7
Q

Exposure technique for abdomen

A

Medium kV

80kV

8
Q

Exposure technique for abdomen

A
  • noncontrast examinations require maximum soft tissue differentiation
  • moderate grey scale desired
  • kVp range that is too high will overpenetrate some structures ~80 kVp

• tissue structures used to determine effective technique

  • lower liver border
  • psoas muscles
  • kidneys
  • ribs
  • transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
9
Q

SID for abdomen

A

40 inches (102 cm)

10
Q

Essential projections for abdomen

A

• AP, supine and upright positions
* PA, upright position
• AP, left lateral decubitus position

11
Q

Three way abdomen or acute abdominal series

A

Demonstrates abdominal contents, presence of free air (pneumoperitoneum), and air-fluid levels

Generally consists of
• AP, supine
• AP, upright
• PA chest

12
Q

Two-way abdomen series

A

Usually requires
• AP, supine
• AP, upright

For both procedures, a left lateral decubitus is performed in lieu of the upright if patient cannot stand

13
Q

To include the diaphragm on upright positions, AP projections of the abdomen, the central ray is centered to:

A. A level 2 inches(5cm) above the iliac crests
B. T7
C. L4
D. Iliac crests

A

A. A level 2 inches(5cm) above the iliac crests

14
Q

Which of the following might be used to demonstrate a pneumoperitoneum?

A. Upright, AP projection
B. Left lateral decubitus
C. Dorsal decubitus
D. All of the above

A

D. All of the above

15
Q

Pathology seen on acute ABD series

A

• bowel obstruction- mechanical blockage
• ileus- failure of peristalsis
* ascites- abdominal fluid in peritoneal cavity

16
Q

What is Ascites?

A

Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity

17
Q

What is ileus?

A

Failure of bowel peristalsis

18
Q

What is pneumoperitoneum?

A

Presence of air in peritoneal cavity