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Flashcards in PCCP 3 Deck (90)
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30

What are the activity and disengagement models of ageing?

Disengagement - its natural for the elderly to withdraw from the social system they belonged to
Activity - older people are happier if they maintain social interactions

31

How do families change for an old individual?

Empty nest syndrome
Grandparent hood
Importance of friendship as family disperses or spouse dies

32

What is the effect of retirement on the elderly?

Loss of latent rewards (satisfaction, friendship, social networks)
Financial worry

33

Is old age a period of stagnation?

No - it is a time of unanticipated change!

34

What are the 'social norms' regarding sexuality?

Men and women differ anatomically
Men act masculine
Women act feminine
Men like women and women like men

35

What are the different elements of sexual attraction?

Feelings
Identity
Behaviour
These may differ - e.g someone may sleep with the same sex (behaviour) but not identify as gay.

36

What is an emotion neutral way of phrasing questions about homosexual behaviour that doesn't broach on identity or feelings?

Have you :
Men who have had sex with men (mwm)
Women who have had sex with women (www)

37

What is a transgender individual?

Gender identity or expression not matching anatomical sex

38

What is a transexual individual?

Wishes to swap gender

39

What is a transvestite individual?

Wears cloths of the opposite sex

40

What diseases and behaviours are more prevalent in lgbt communities?

Anxiety, depression, smoking, drug use
Stds - syphilis, hiv, hpv

41

Why is depression more common in lgbt?
When is it particually marked?

Discrimination and isolation
When it conflicts with other major groups in the patients life, eg religion

42

Why may lgbt be wary of healthcare providers?

Lg Mental illness until 1992
Bt still a mental illness
Lobotomy practiced until 1980s

43

What are health related behaviours?

Behaviours that promote good health or increase risk of bad health

44

What broad groups of theories can be applied to health related behaviour?

Learning theories
Social cognition models
Stages of change model

45

What are the learning theories?

Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Social learning theory

46

What are the social cognition models?

Health belief model
Theory of planned behaviour

47

Give some examples of classical conditioning applied to healthcare positively and negatively

Positive - disulfarim with alcohol
Negative - anticipatory nausea in chemo

48

Why might operant conditioning lead to unhealthy behaviours?

Unhealthy behaviours often have good immidiate rewards (unsafe sex, drinking, smoking etc.)

49

How might operant conditioning be beneficial in healthcare

Reward for good behaviour (e.g. Holiday with money that would have gone on smoking)

50

What is social learning theory? What class of models does it fall into?
Good and bad examples

Learning theories
Watching others be punished / rewarded for a behaviour and mimicking
Peer taught safe sex, good behaviour and dedication from athletes
Peers smoking or drinking

51

What are the social cognition models?

Health beliefs model
Theory of planned behaviour

52

What theory do social cognition models rely on?

Cognitive dissonance theory - discomfort in individuals when beliefs don't match reality

53

What is the health beliefs model?
What is its major error?

People make choices based on their beliefs about a threat (susceptabity and severity) and beliefs on how their behaviour will influence that threat (both costs and benefits)

It assumes all beliefs are made rationally with no emotions and there is no coercion

54

What is the theory of planned behaviour?

A combination of beliefs about outcomes, beliefs about normal behaviour and percieved control over behaviour are evaluated to form an intention and eventually a behaviour change

55

What is the major problem with the theory of planned behaviour

The intention behaviour gap - an intention wont necessarily cause a change in behaviour

56

What is the stages of change model?

Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance

57

What happens during the stages of change model if someone drops back a stage or more?

Relapse - a normal phenomenon not failure!

58

Differentiate adherence and compliance

Compliance - pt following drs advice
Adherence - pts behaviours coinciding with medical advice via agreement and right to choose.

59

How prevalent is non-adherence to treatment? Which treatments are worst?

Some chronic disease treatments have 50 % non adherence
Worst are diet, behaviour change and exercise