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Flashcards in pediatric neurology Deck (58):
1

definition of epilepsy

occurrence of >2 unprovoked seizures

2

abnormal hyper synchroncous discharge of cortical neurons

epilepsy

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name that seizure: staring episodes with cessation of activity

absence

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name that seizure: : brief jerking muscle movements

myoclonic

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name that seizure: loss of tone

atonic

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name that seizure: regularly repeated msucles jerking

clonic

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simple partial is _____alteration in consciousness vs complex partial is ____alteration in consciousness

NO alteration; any alteration

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staring off for less than 20 seconds withOUT loss of tone, or confusion post starting episode

childhood absence epilepsy

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what can absence epilepsy be provoked by?

hyperventilation

10

EEG with generalized 3 Hz spike and slow wave discharge

absence seizure

11

tx of choice for absence seizure

ethusoximide

12

peak onset seizures 5-10 yrs, infrequent partial seizures, tingling in mouth, on face, drooling, dysphasia, speech arrest, unilateral UE movement

benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes

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EEG: centrotemporal spikes

rolandic epilepsy

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usually have seizures that occur during sleep

rolandic epilepsy

15

drug of choice for rolandic epilepsy

carbamazepine or oxcarbazapine

16

EEG: 3-6 Hz polyspikes and wave

juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

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myoclonic jerks, age of onset 12-18, provoked by photic stimulation, AM wakening, lack of sleep

juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

18

does juvenile myoclonic epilepsy resolve by end of adolescence years or persist?

persists, requires life long tx

19

tx of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

men: valproic acid
women: levetiracetam, lamotrigine

20

fever + seizure w/o CNS infxn

febrile seizure

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febrile seizures occur in what ages

3 months-->6 yrs

22

what is the most common seizure in children

febrile seizure

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simple febrile seizure is defined as generalized, less than ____min long, occurs___in a 24 hr period

15 min long; occurs 1x in 24 hrs

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tx to stop febrile seizure

benzo

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Small brief spasm, but one of the most severe epilepsy patterns

infantile spasm

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EEG: hypsarrhythmia

infantile spasm

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drug of choice for infantile spasm

ACTH

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drug of choice for infantile spasm secondary to tuberous sclerosis

vigabatrin

29

cahracterized by different types of seizures, mental retardation

lennox gastaut syndrome

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EEG: less than 2.5 spike and slow wave discharges

lennox gastaut syndrome

31

neonatal seizures are typically what type of seizure

focal tonic, focal clonic or myoclonic

32

most common etiologies of neonatal seizures (4)

1. hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
2. CNS infxn
3. intracranial bleeding
4. brain malformation

33

best imaging for neonatal seizre

MRI

34

preferred tx for neonatal seizure

phenobarbital

35

immune mediated acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

guillain barre syndrome

36

the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children

guillain barre syndrome

37

campylobacter jejuni infxn, symmetri ascending paralysis

guillain barre syndrome

38

symmetric legs weakness with diminished or absent DTR

guillain barre syndrome

39

incr CSF protein, normal WBC with normal mental exam

guillain barre syndrome

40

what is the most sensitive and specific test for demyelination

nerve conduction study

41

tx of guillain barre syndrome

IVIG 2 g/kg or plasmapharesis

42

calf hypertrophy, gower's sign, x linked recessive, slowly progressive

duchenne muscular dystrophy

43

msot common causes of acute ataxia in children (3)

1. post infectious cerebellar ataxia
2. intoxication
3. guillain barre syndrome

44

most common cause of acute ataxia in children

post infectious cerebellar ataxia

45

rapid onset ataxia that is worst at presentation followed by gradual improvement

post infectious cerebellar ataxia

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work up of post infectious cerebellar ataxia

brain MRI

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static motor encephalopathy due to insult to developing brain in first 3 yrs of life

cerebral palsy

48

what is peripheral hypertonia

spasticity and clonus

49

what is axial hypotonia

head lag, truncal hypotonia

50

classic cause of spastic hemiplegia in CP

unilateral perinatal stroke

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cause of spastic diplegia

premature infants with perventricular leukomalacia

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recurrent HA with N/V, photophobia

migraine

53

most common type of migraine

migraine w/o aura

54

main med for prevention of migraines in kids

cyproheptadine

55

topiramate is good for tx of mirgrains in what sort of kids

obese, kids with epilepsy

56

what is the main concern associated with tuberous sclerosis

incr risk of epilepsy

57

cardiac rhabdomyoma

tuberous sclerosis

58

non inherited disorder, port wine stain, leptomeningeal angiomas, seizures, cognitive delay, unilateral glaucoma

sturge weber syndrome