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Flashcards in Performance Deck (55):
1

The total expected value to the organization of discrete behavioral episodes that an individual carries out over a standard period of time

Job performance

2

Behaviors under the control of the individual that contribute to organizational outcomes

Job performance

3

Are outcomes of behavior considered performance?

No because they are not necessarily under individual control

4

Behaviors that contribute to the production of goods and services

Task performance

5

Behavior that contributes to the social and psychological environment of the organization

Citizenship

6

Behavior that actively damages the organization

Counterproductive

7

Three types of performance

Task performance
Citizenship
Counterproductive

8

The process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals

Performance management

9

The three parts of performance management

Specify those aspects of performance that are relevant to the organization (based on job analysis)
Measure/evaluate performance (performance appraisal)
Provide performance feedback

10

Three purposes of performance management

Strategic Purpose
Administrative Purpose
Developmental Purpose

11

effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives

Strategic Purpose

12

refers to the ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs

Administrative Purpose

13

serves as a basis for developing employees' knowledge and skills

Developmental Purpose

14

The extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure

Validity

15

Performance measure is deficient to the extent that

it does not measure all the important aspects

16

performance measure is contaminated to the extend that

some of what it measures is irrelevant

17

Describes the consistency of the results that the performance measure will deliver

Reliability

18

consistency of results when more than one person measures performance

Inter-rater Reliabililty

19

consistency of the results over time

test-retest reliability

20

correlation between performance measures at different points of time

temporal consistency

21

the extend to which the true value of a measure remains constant over time

Stability

22

_____ should specifically tell employees what is expected and how they can meet those expectations

Performance appraisals

23

Three ways we measure performance

Objective Data
Personnel Data
Judgmental/Subjective Measures

24

Look at the actual, quantifiable results of work

Objective Data

25

Ask people about others' performance

Judgmental/Subjective Measures

26

Performance Appraisal method that requires the rater to compare on individuals performance with that of the other

Comparative Approach

27

Managers must rank employees in their group from highest performer to the poorest performer

Simple ranking

28

While easy to use, comparison based appraisals (4)

Provide little information for feedback
Difficult to interpret
Hurt morale
Vulnerable to legal attacks

29

This measurement assesses employees in terms of characteristic or trait believed to be desirable.
Can be applied to a wide variety of jobs and organizations, however are rarely linked to organization strategy

Attribute Approach

30

lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait

Graphic Rating Scale

31

uses several statements describing each trait

Mixed-Standard Scale

32

Employees receive feedback about what they do well and poorly and how they are helping the organization achieve its goals

behavioral approach

33

This begins by defining which behaviors are associated with success on the job, identified in the job analysis

Behavioral Approach

34

Based on managers' records of specific examples of the employee acting in ways that are either effective or ineffective

Critical-incident method

35

Rates behavior in terms of a scale showing specific statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

36

Uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a task

Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)

37

Focuses on measuring the objective, measurable results of a job

Results Approach

38

Meet and set goals based on org goals, and see if goals are met

Management by objectives

39

Practical problems with results approach (2)

Output is difficult to measure for most jobs, especially managerial jobs or for collaborate work
May lead to perverse incentives (computer programmers paid by the line write too much code, doctors who emphasize number of patients over quality of care)

40

4 Performancce Measurement Approaches

Comparative, Attribute, Behavioral, Results

41

Performance measurement that combines information from the employee's managers, peers, subordinates, self, customers

360-Degree Performance Appraisals

42

People tend to remember the first things on a list
First impressions

Primacy effects

43

People tend to remember the last things on a list
People reconstruct their memories for events based on what's happened lately

Recency Effects

44

People notice differences across candidates.
Individuals are invariably compared to others

Contrast Effects

45

People see others who are like themselves as more varied, unique, and individual
People tend to see those who are similar to themselves as "better" on dimensions like morals and values
Often termed "similar-to-me bias"

Similariity-attraction

46

Raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others. Can lead to an overly favorable or unfavorable rating

Halo/Horns error

47

The rater tends to use only one part of a rating scale

Distributional errors

48

Three distributional errors

Leniency
Strictness
Central Tendancy

49

The reviewer rates everyone near the top

Leniency

50

The rater favors lower rankings

Strictness

51

The rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale

Central Tendency

52

Instances when intentional errors occur as individuals will (or attempt to) distort an evaluation to advance their personal goals

Political Behaviors

53

Political behaviors are most likely to occur when (5)

Raters are accountable to the employee being rated
The goals of the ratings are not compatible with one another
Appraisal is directly linked to desirable reward
Prior ratings have been distorted
Errors have historically been ignored

54

This is important so that individuals know what they are doing well and what areas they may need to improve

Feedback

55

What portion of feedback has a negative effect on performancce

1/3