Flashcards in Performance and Loading - cyber exam q's Deck (93):
Corrected Effective Operational Length is a length of runway - including over-run - expressed in feet, and corrected for -
Runway Slope, Surface and approaches
which are declared by CASA as usable for T/O and LNDG by aircraft.
CEOL is determined by reference to...
the AIP, subject to variations contained in NOTAMS
the 'Main Runway' is the runway with the
Jet aircraft maximum rate of climb is determined by
excess power over weight
Vs when related to transport category aircraft is
the minimum steady flight speed
you want your aircraft to stay airborne as long as possible. You would achieve this by flying
at the altitude where use of engine design RPM would result in a speed of Vimd
to achieve max angle of climb, you would climb at
Vimd using max thrust
large jet aircraft have a large speed band where the rate of climb is fairly constant. This is because
for this band, the power available and power required curves are nearly parallel
The CP of a transport aircraft wing should ideally have minimal movement with variations in speed because
large trim changes would caused by large CP movement
Considering the flap extension increases lift, the reason they are not used for the climb is
Minimum drag speed is higher with flap and the extra drag cancels the lift benefit
an emergency climb on encountering severe low level wind shear would be achieved by
climbing at a target speed of just above the stall and using takeoff power
Jet aircraft specific air range (SAR) as a comparison of air distance per tonne of fuel consumed would be expressed in the form
to achieve max range in nil wind at a given FL, you would fly at
Operating a jet engine at design RPM will give the
Jet engine design RPM is
slightly less than max RPM
Max air range is achieved by flying at
a cruise climb 1.32 and Vimd and design RPM
For a given altitude and weight, the way the IAS varies for max AOC if flap is extended is
it (the AOC) decreases due to the lower Vimd
The theoretical requirement (as far as the airframe is concerned) for max range is
an IAS of 1.32 Vimd
If required to cruise at a level with significant H/W, when max range is needed you would fly
fly faster than the nil wind max range speed because you need to achieve the best GS/DRAG ratio
The effect of changes in OAT on SGR of a TURBOJET at a particular weight, speed and altitudes is
Changers in OAT have NO significan effect on SGR
The effect of changes in OAT on the specific fuel consumption (SFC) of a turbojet at a particular weight, speed and altitudes is
an increase in OAT results in a increased SFC
The maximum range TAS of a turbojet aircraft is
determined by the AOA and best GS/Drag
The AOA for max endurance in a turbo aircraft is
indepentant of wind and weight
Westerly IFR hemispherical cruse levels for non RVSM ops are
FLY 280. 310, 350
When using forecast conditions for the purpose of calculating Landing Weight Limitations, it is to be assumed that there will be
NO HWC available!
In weight and balance calculations, a moment is defined as
a weight multiplied by an arm
The definition of Basic Weight includes...
When discussing take off performance for a transport category aircraft with a MTOW in excess of 5700kg, the forth take off climb extends from
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE HEIGHT
FINAL TAKE OFF CLIMB SPEED
For a total fuel load of 29000 kg, the fuel would normally be loaded
full main tank with the remainder in the auxiliary tanks
Expressing and aircraft CG position as a % of MAC permits comparison of the location of the CG relative to the position of the
center of pressure
a reduction of Index Units (IU) refers to a centre of gravity shift which is
In weight and balance calculations, the term I.U. refers to
The CG must be checked at both
Taxi and Zero Fuel weights!
for scale movements purposes, infants are
IGNORED! Adolescence and Children are HALF !
When using standard weights to compile a load and trim sheet
using standard male and female weights instead of the standard adult weight will generally result in a LOWER total weight
H O W E V E R . . . . . IF
IF there are more MALES than female, use of standard weights(81kg) yields a lower total weight!!!!!!!!!!!!
Loading of fuel in the aft auxiliary fuel tank is permitted when the total fuel requirement EXCEEDS ......
when the total fuel requirement EXCEEDS 20,600kgs (20.6 tonnes!!)
With regard to decision speed (V1)
V1 is selected so that, if the take-off is continued after an engine failure which is recognised at or above the V1 speed, it will be possible to attain a height of 35 ft within the scheduled take-off distance, or if the take off is abandoned at or below the V2 speed it will be possible to bring the aircraft to a stop within the scheduled accelerated stop disantace.
With regards to rotation speed (Vr)
rotation at the correct rate and Vr speed will result in V2 at or below 35 ft with one engine inoperative
With regards to TOSS (V2)
V2 is achieved as a resulte of proper roation proceedures
With regards to minimum control speed (Vmca)
Vmca is the minimum speed at which the aircraft can be kept within specific limits of heading and attitude with the critical engine in op and the remainder at take off power in the the second segment configurations
With regard to the stall speed Vs
Vs is the minimum steady flight speed
The scenario which is most likely to cause a tail strike in a large turbojet during takeoff would be
a normal rotation rate at a speed lower than Vr
V2 must not be less than
Following engine failure after takeoff in a multi engine aircraft above 5700kg , MTOW, the third takeoff segment ends
when the aircraft has reached normal climb speed and is in the clean configuration.
IN a twin TURBO PROP above 5700kg MTOW, during a missed approach in the landing configuration with both engines operating, the required speed and gradient of climb respectively are
not in excess of 1.3 Vs and NOT less than 3.2%
The use of a clearway for takeoff calcuations is permitted provides the TORA is ≥
TORA is ≥ TORR
If used whith the approved takeoff ranges, the use of more flap on takeoff will
shorten then takeoff run, but lengthen the second and thirds segments
A twin engines jet is approahcing to land at 1500ft AGL in the landing configuration with the critical engine inoperative. The net flight path gradient requirement, if any is
THERE IS NO REQUIREMENT
As fuel is consumed from the wing tipts, the CG moves
The airacraft is loaded with 15000kg of usable fuel in the main tanks for a flight. The correct statement regarding fuel feeding is
use tank to engine feed
As the takeoff CG position becomes more rearward, the horizontal stabiliser trim units required for take off is
S M A L L E R ! ! !
Before entering the landing charts when calculating landing weight for a CAT ONE ILS landing, a LDA of 2000 meters MUST BE reduced by
the greater of 13% or 300 metres - before entering the reference distance chart!
When is the 'adjusted' LDA corrected for slope?
ONLY when the wind is AMBIENT!
Wind does not alter LDA
Wind alters Landing Reference Distance ONLY
When on approach to in gusty condition it is desirable to approach at a higher than normal speed to account for variation in airspeed. To calculate this sped margin, add half the wind speed and half the gust speed with a max increment of 20 kt above the approach speed.
If the reported wind at the AD is 10 kt gusting 20kt, then the aircraft should approach at .
wind speed 10
gust from 10 to 20 kt --> so the gust is 10kt
Vref + 10
With a critical engine inoperative in a multi engine jet transport with a MTOW in excess of 5700kg, the 'gross' climb gradient in the second climb segment, as required for certification is
2.4% for a TWIN, 2.7% for a THREE engine aircraft and 3% for a FOUR engine aircraft.
With a critical engine inoperative in a multi engine aircraft with a MTOW in excess of 5700kg, the 'net' climb gradient in the second climb segment, as required for certification, is
1.6% for a TWIN, 1.8% for a THREE engine aircraft and 2% for a FOUR engine aircraft
Loading cargo into compartment ONE results in the CG moving .....
LEFT is Forward
RIGHT is Rearward!
The possibility of a large jet suffering a tail strike on the runway during takeoff is greatest with
an early (at any rate) slow rotation!
The factors most affecting BRW are (6)
Enroute climb limit
The four climb segments following an enginre failure at V1 for a large turbine aircraft consists of
lift off to gear up, gear up to 400ft minimum, 400ft minimum to level to takeoff climb speed, 400 ft minimum to 1500 ft
Following an engine failure recognised by V1 in a twin turbine, the gross climb gradient that must be achieved without landing gear retraction is
The reason for specifying a max ZFW for an aircaft is
to prevent excessive stress on the wings and fuselage with low fuel quantities!
The speed Vref is
the landing speed in a nominated configuration
The accelerate stop distance required (ASDR) for a particular aircraft is shown in the manufacturers data assumes
there is a 2 to 3 second reaction time between V1 and pilot response
An aircraft lading at a 3 degree approach angle, crosses the landing threshold at 50ft higher than normal landing approach height.
compared to the normal touchdown position, the extra distance the touchdown position for approach is......
THE RULE: 1000ft runway distance per 50ft!
BASED ON: a 3 degree GS Txr sitting ~1000ft from the landing threshold which puts you at 50ft over the landing threshold.
If you get an ETOPS question
rip out CAO 82.0
When a range of V1 speed is available for a given set of conditions, selection of a high V1 will
Decrease the 1-INOP TODR and
Increase the ASDR!
If a clearway is approved for inclusion in the TODA, the effect on BRW is
The BRW may be increase if
With regard to the speed V2
V2 speed should be reached at or before 35'
When considering the obstacle clearance requirements for large multi-engines turbine aircraft in the event of an engine failure after take off, the second segment climb refers to the period from
Gear up to a minimum, height of
400' (obstacle clearance height)
Clearway is the difference between TODA and....
TODA vs TORA!
The effect on the V1 speed if 'stopway is included' in the take off and ASD performance calculations is
V1 must be increased!
The most critical segment for obstacle clearance in the event of an engine failure on the take-off is the
V1 must be greater than or equal to V..
Vmcg plus recognition time!
As fuel is consumed from the wing tips the CoG moves
The mixing of standard and Male/Female Adult weights on the same load sheet is.... Pr.. .. ..
Last minute passenger adjustment allow for a maximum of ....
TEN passengers OR 900kg of freight
Without changing stab trim!
The maximum number of Last minute passengers is determined by the line that encloses both the
TAXI and ZFW centre of gravity positions!!
Compared to a balanced field take off calculation, the addition of a clearway to the TODA in a rwy limited T/O performance calculation will permit a higher g...
a higher gross weight at take off with a LOWER V1
Compared to a balanced field take off calculation, the addition of a stopway to the ASDA in a rwy limited T/O performance calculation will permit a higher gr...
a higher gross weight at take off with a HIGHER V1
The inclusion of a clearway in a TOD limited take off performance calculation will permit a h...
higher gross weight take off!!!
At a given FL, maximum range given a BRW is achieved by flying
at a speed corresponding to the best TAS/DRAG ratio in nil wind and this is equivalent to 1.32 times the best L/D ratio speed which occurs at slower speed as weight reduces.
Effect of CoG on Vmca
a forward CoG results in a lower Vmca!
At a constant Mach, the effect of an increase in OAT on SAR and TAS are
TAS increases, SAR will not significantly change!>
The purpose of the MZFW is
to limit the payload which may be loaded on the aircraft to protect the wings from excessive bending moments IN FLIGHT!
When discussing T/O performance for aircraft with MTOW >5700kg, the first 'take-off climb segment' extends 'from'
a point where the aircraft first reaches 35'above the take-off surface to the point where landing gear retraction is completed.
When discussing T/O performance for aircraft with MTOW >5700kg, the second segment extends from
gear up to 'obstacle clearance height'
A wet runway will
reduce the accelerate stop limited TOW if V1 I not change!
The use of additional flap settings on take-off has the effect of -
INCREASING runway limited take off weight but REDUCING climb limited take-off weight!
In determining obstacle clearance requirements in the event of an engine failure in a multi-engine jet with MTOW .5700kg, in the ABSENCE of detailed obstacle clearance data it is ACEPTABLE to -
use Airservices Australia's declaired TODA's and gradients!
The maximum range of a turbojet at a particular altitude will be achieved by flying at
a speed resulting in the best GS/Drag ratio!!!!!