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Flashcards in Runway Length Definitions Deck (61):
1

TODR is the longest of the distance necessary to accelerate to V1 and continue to 35' above the runway surface after failure of the critical engine,

OR

115% of the TODR to 35' in the all engines case

2

The 1-inop case is normally limiting for

TWINS

3

The all-engine-distance is usually limiting for

three or four engine craft.

4

TORR is the distance necessary to accelerate to V1, then with a critical engine recognised at V1 continue to a point midway between

the lift-off point and the point where the screen height of 35' is reached.

5

TORR in the all-engine case is 115% of the distance required to bring the aircraft to to a point midway between

the lift-off point and the point where the screen height of 35' is reached.

6

ASDR is the distance required to accelerate to V1, recognise failure of the critical engine by V1 and then

Decelerate to a complete stop!

7

Recognition time is factored in between....

Vef and V1 to recognise the failure of the critical engine.

8

TORA

Takeoff surface free of obstacles and consisting of a surface capable of carrying aircraft.

9

TORA is equal to the rwy

length available for takeoff.

10

TODA is runway length available PLUS

any adjoining Clearway.

11

With TODA a DOCG (Declared Obstacle Clear Gradient) is specified.

This gradient defines the minimum gradient required to be achieved by aircraft.

12

The 1-INOP climb performance is compared with the DOCG to ensure...

Adequate performance after the failure of the critical engine.

13

If the required DOCG is greater then then NET performance available from the aircraft IN THE SECOND SEGMENT

an alternate runway length which does must be sought.

If not obstacle clearance would not be assured.

14

STODA

Supplimentary TODA

15

STODA's for a runway are

Shorter rwy lengths with DOCG measured from partway down the runway.

16

A STODA has shallower obstacle clearance gradient requirements because....

they are measured from further back from the limiting obstacles!

17

Aircraft which are able to meet or exceed the reduced obstacle clear gradient at the shorter length may...

utilise STODA's

18

Clearway (CWY) is an area beyond the rwy, NOT LESS THAN 500ft wide and

centrally located about the extended centre line of the runway

and under the airport authorities jurisdiction

19

CWY slope

1.25%

20

CWY's do are not required to have prepared ground surface and may even

extend over water!

21

Stopway (SWY) is an area beyond the rwy, at least as wide as the rwy and centered about the rwy and able to

support a rejected take-off without causeing damage to the aircraft.

22

If a Stopway is clear of obstacles it may also be approved as a

Clearway!

23

Take-off Path-

consist of TODR to 35'

24

Take-off FLIGHT path -

starts at the end of the take off path(35') to 1500'

25

The take off path represents the actual flight path as determined by the AFM from BR to 1500' above the take-off surface/up to the point where transition to climb config is complete

WHICHEVER IS HIGHER!

26

V1 is decisive for the relative lengths of take-off distance and ASD...

The LOWER the V1 is chosen to be the l.....

LONGER the take of distance will be!

and

ASDR will be shorter!

27

If a high V1 is chosen the TOD will be less but then ASD will be g....

greater !

28

With the critical engine failed, a V1 can be chosen where TODR = ASDR, this is refered to as a b....

Balanced Field!

29

With a balanced field V1, the max possible TOW can be achieved in those cases where neither SWY/CWY exist and then e...

entire runway MUST be used for take-off!

30

If use of SWY/CWY is utilised, V1 is adjusted to increase

TOW

31

Where CWY but not swy is available V1 must be

lower than balanced field V1 so that the TOD is > ASD

32

Where SWY but no CWY, the selected V1 must be hi

higher than balanced field V1

33

If 1-INOP TODR is

Lowering the V1!

34

If you already have a balanced field (1-inop TODR=ASDR) an additional safety margin can be achieved by decreasing take-off wei...

wieght which consequently reduces ASDR.

35

The difference between ASD and actual runway length represents

an additional safety margin to allow for adverse runway condition with reduced braking capability!

36

In poor braking conditions (wet/icy) there are two ways to create a safety margin [Use or Red]

1. Use excess runway to lower V1
2. Reduce TOW

37

T/O from contaminated rwy has a reduced takeoff screen height of 15' 1-INOP and stopping distance incl

includes the effect of reverse thrust!

38

Use of 'reduced thrust' (assumed temp) or 'improved climb procedures must n.....

must NOT be used!

39

Climb Limited take-off weights

Minimum climb gradients are based on the assumption of an engine failure before....

V2

40

Obstacle limited TOW -

To ensure obstacle clearance after take off, the n...

net flight path must be examined.

41

Conditions associated with obstacle limited TOW

Critical engine failure at V1, is to be assumed,

The T/O config is to be maintained to at least 400'

The enroute config must be achieved by the end of the T/O flight path (gear&flaps up, final climb speed)

42

Obstacle limited TO - if the critical engine fails after V1 the speed must not be red...

not be reduced!

43

V2 is NOT the best 1-in....

1-INOP AOC speed

44

V2 is the slowest speed at which adequate cli...

climb performance is assured.

45

Climbing at speeds >V2 inc....

increases climb performance.

46

If sufficient runway is available, the aircraft may be intentionally left on the ground longer, to a higher Vr speed, to increase climb speed (above V2) which improves.......

improves climb performance and so increase the climb limited TOW

47

If ASDA is less than TODA there is a

clearway

48

When determining Effective Operational Length, subtract the line up allowance from the sho...

SHORTEST length available from the RDS by comparing published STODA TODA ASDA

49

At MSL, the max 'quick turn around' weight limit is often GREATER than . ... .... SL

Structural landing weight limit...

UNLESS

OAT is greater than 45 degrees.

50

At higher pressure heights, weights are more limiting due to increased ......

landing ground speeds!

51

Landing weight Limit is the least of ...

Landing Runway Limitation;
Landing Climb Limitation; &
Structural Weight Limitation.

52

Runway/structural limits are usually the ...

limiting weight (Landing Climb Limit - not so much)

53

ASDA is the TORA plus the length of any s....

Stopway available!

54

ASDR is the greater of either the....

engine out or all engine ASDR

55

TODA is the length of the TORA plus the length of any C...

Clearway available!

56

If the required rwy climb gradient is > Net climb performance in the SECOND segment Obstacle clearance is not assured,

do not take off!

57

If the required rwy climb gradient is > Net climb performance in the SECOND segment reduce BRW or

seek alternate runway length if available!

58

ASDR must not exceed

ADSA!

59

TODR must not exceed

TODA!

60

TORR must not exceed

TORA! a clearway consideration.

A clearway may only be used for the second half of the climb to 35'!

Lift off height must be an adequate distance from the runway end!

61

Balanced field V1 yields the highest possible 'field length limited' t.....

TOW!