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Flashcards in Pharm Deck (31):
1

What are the beta lactams?

Penicillin
Caphalosporin
Carbapenems
Aztreonam

2

What is the MOA of beta-lactams?

Binds to penicillin binding proteins which are transpeptidases that catalyze the terminal reactions in the bacterial cell wall synthesis

- they bind amino acid side chains to one another to form cross linking

- inhibits cross linking

3

How do beta lactams cause antibiotic therapy?

Bactericidal via osmosis (because of weakend cell wall) causing cell to burst

4

What causes penicillin resistance and what organisms can do so?

Pinicillinases which inactivate Penicillins

- Staph strain and N gonorrhea

5

What are Nafcillin and Diclozacillin?

Antistaphlococcal penicillins or Penicillinase- resistant penicillins

- Fight staph Aureus because they have larger R groups which are resistant to penicillinases

6

What the are the beta lactam inhibitors?

Clavulanate, Sulbactam and Tazobactam

- inhibit penicillinase

7

What are ampicillin and amoxicillin?

More water soluble and can thus pass through porin channels and taken up by Gram - strains of bacteria that resist penicillins simply by not taking up as much of the drug.

Inactivated by Beta lactamases

8

What is added to amox and amp for additional beta latamase support?

Amox- Clavulanate
Amp- sulbactam

9

What is Atreonam?

monocyclic beta lactam
- given is have allergy to penicillin
- specific to gram - rods
- but sensitive to penicillinases

10

What is the MOA of cephalosporin?

Bind to penicillin binding proteins and inhibit cell wall synthesis.

Sensitive to beta lactamases but not penicillinases

11

What are the 1st, 2, 3,4 and 5th generation cephasporins?

1. Cephalexin
2. Cefoxitin
3. Ceftriaxone
4. Cefepime
5. Ceftaroline

12

What are the carbapenems?

Imipenem
Cilastain
Meropenem

13

What is the MOA of carbapenems?

Beta lactam ring binds to the penicillin binding protein

14

What is the MOA of vancomycin?

NOT a beta lactam
- Binds to D alanyl D alanine terminus of cell wall and inhibits release from bactoprenol carrier which prevents peptidoglycan synthesis

Resistant to beta lactamases

- turns D-alanyl-D alanine into D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-serine

15

What are the aminoglycosides?

Gentamycin
Tobramycin
Neomycin
Streptomycin
Amikacin

16

What is the MOA of aminoglycoside?

Bacteriocidal by binding to 30S subunit to prevent protein synthesis

17

What is Epitofibatide? What are some other drugs of its class?

Inhibits GpIIB/IIIA from binding to fibrinogen

Abciximab and Tirofiban

18

What is the MOA of Clopidogrel and what are some other drugs in its class?

They inhibit the binding of ADP to the platelet. When ADP usually binds to the platelet its cause endocytosis of the GpIIB/IIIA receptor onto the outside of the platelet where it serves to bind fibronigen and another GpIIB/IIIA on another platelet.

prasugrel and ticlopidine

19

What are statins?

Inhibit HMG-CoA from being converted to Mavelonate which later becomes cholesterol. The enzyme that does this is HMG-CoA reductase which is inhibited by statins

-vastatin ending

20

What are the bile acids resins?

cholestyramine
Colestipol
Colesevelam

21

What is the MOA of bile acids resins?

Prevent intestinal resorption of bile acids. In order to make more bile acids the liver must use cholesterol. Which there by decrease the bodies cholesterol.

22

What happens to LDL, HDL and triglycerides in bile acid resins?

Big decrease in LDL's
Slight increase in the later 2

23

What is Ezetimibe? Its MOA?

Prevents cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border

Big decrease in LDL's
No affect on Tri's and HDL's

24

What are the fibrates and their affects on LDL, HDL, and triglycerides?

Gemfibrozil
Bezafibrate
Fenfibrate

Small decrease in LDL
Small increase in HDL
Huge decrease in triglycerides

25

What is the MOA of fibrates?

Upregulate LPL to increase triglyceride clearance

Activate PRAR-alpha to induce HDL synthesis

26

What is the affect of Niacin on LDL, HDL and triglycerides?

Medium decrease in LDL
Medium increase in HDL
Small decrease in triglycerides

27

What is the MOA of niacin?

Inhibits lipolysis (hormone sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue
Reduced hepatic VLDL synthesis

28

What is the MOA of Hydralazine?

increase cGMP to increase SM relaxation
Arterioles dilate greater than veins

29

What are Hydralazines used for?

Severe HTN, reduced afterload
HF
Safe for pregnancy

30

What are he HTN drugs safe for pregnancy?

1. Hydralazine
2. Nifidipine
3. Labetalol
4. Methyldopa

31

What is Methyldopa?

Alpha 2 agonist