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Flashcards in Extra Path Deck (28):

What is a antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)?

Serum from many pts with vasculitis reacts with cytoplasmic ags in neutrophils


What are the causes of non- infectious vasculitis?

Immune complex deposition
- Antineutrophil cytoplasmic abs
- Anti- endothelial cell abs


What is thrombophlebitis?

Inflammation and venous thrombosis usually affecting the deep leg veins


what are some reasons for thrombophlebitis?

Neoplasia or malignancy
- PE is common and serious consequence


What is Trousseau sign?

Migrating thrombophlebitis


what is lymphagitis associated with?

Bacterial infections

aka: lymphadenitis


What type of cancer is usually spread via lymphatics?

Carcinoma type with LN involvement


What is chronic lymphedema?

Due to lymphatic obstruction or interruption


What are some causes of chronic lymphedema?

-Obstructive neoplasia


What is a cavernous hemangioma?

-Larger than capillary hemangiomas
- Dep structures
- Cavernous vascular spaces
- Von Hippel-Lindau dz occur within cerebellum, brainstem or eye


What is a pyogenic granuloma?

Polypoind form of capillary hemangioma that occurs as rapidly growing, exophytic red nodule attached by a stalk to the skin and gingival or oral mucosa


What is a lymphangioma?

Benign lymphatic analog of hemangioma


what is a glomus tumor?

Benign very painful tumor that typically occurs in the distal portion of the digits
- modified SMC of glomus body


What is vascular ectasias?

-not true neoplasms; lesions characterized by localized dilation of pre-existing vessels
- Nevus flammus and port wine strain


What are spider telangiectasia?

pulsatile array of dilated subcutaneous arteries or arterioles that blanch when pressure is applied to the center seen in pregnant women and cirrhotic patients


What are hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia?

(Osler-Weber-Rendu disease); autosomal dominant disorder with widely distributed lesions composed of dilated capillaries and veins


What is eisenmenger syndrome?

The pulmonary arteries respond by medial hypertrophy and constriction to maintain normal pressures, however eventually resistance increases toward systemic levels and there is a reverse of the shunt to right to left with unoxygenated blood in the systemic circulation


What does the LAD supply?

infarct involves anterior wall of the left ventricle near apex; anterior 2/3 portion of ventricular septum; apex circumferentially and anteriolateral papillary muscle


What does the RCA supply?

Infarct involves inferior/posterior wall of the left ventricle; posterior portion of the ventricular septum; inferior/posterior right ventricular free wall in some cases

PDA 85% come from RCA


What does the LCA supply?

Infarct involves lateral wall of the left free ventricle except at apex


What is endocarditis in systemic lupus erthematosus?

Mitral and tricuspid valvulitis with small, sterile vegetations called Libman-Sacks endocarditis (present on both sides of valve leaflets)


What is carcinoid HD?

Cardiac manifestation of the systemic syndrome caused by carcinoid tumors

- Endocardium and valves of right side


What are the forms of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy?

-Autosomal dominant inheritance is the predominant pattern
-Genetic abnormalities largely affect the cytoskeleton
-X-linked cardiomyopathy has been linked to the gene for dystrophin


What are the non-viral cause of myocarditis?

-Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in South America
-Trichinosis: most common helminithic disease associated with cardiac involvement
-Lyme carditis
-AIDS myocarditis
-Inflammation and myocyte damage without a clear etiologic agent
-Myocarditis caused directly by HIV or opportunistic pathogen


What are the non-infectious cause of myocarditis?

-Allergic reactions (hypersensitivity) often to a particular drug
-Systemic diseases of immune origin: RF, SLE, polymositis, etc.
-Cardiac sarcoidosis and transplant rejection


What is senile cardiac amyloidosis?

-Exclusively a disease of elderly people
-Protein deposits derive from transthyretin
-Has a far better prognosis than systemic amyloidosis


What is a papillary fibroelastoma?

usually located on valves and appear as hairline projections, may represent organized thrombi


Can iron overload cause myocarditis?

Yes can cause dilation and systolic dysfunction
- accumulation of hemosiderin within cardiac myocytes