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Flashcards in Extra Path Deck (28):
1

What is a antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)?

Serum from many pts with vasculitis reacts with cytoplasmic ags in neutrophils

2

What are the causes of non- infectious vasculitis?

Immune complex deposition
- Antineutrophil cytoplasmic abs
- Anti- endothelial cell abs

3

What is thrombophlebitis?

Inflammation and venous thrombosis usually affecting the deep leg veins

4

what are some reasons for thrombophlebitis?

Neoplasia or malignancy
- PE is common and serious consequence

5

What is Trousseau sign?

Migrating thrombophlebitis

6

what is lymphagitis associated with?

Bacterial infections

aka: lymphadenitis

7

What type of cancer is usually spread via lymphatics?

Carcinoma type with LN involvement

8

What is chronic lymphedema?

Due to lymphatic obstruction or interruption

9

What are some causes of chronic lymphedema?

-Congenital
-Surgical
-Obstructive neoplasia
-Parasitic

10

What is a cavernous hemangioma?

-Larger than capillary hemangiomas
- Dep structures
- Cavernous vascular spaces
- Von Hippel-Lindau dz occur within cerebellum, brainstem or eye

11

What is a pyogenic granuloma?

Polypoind form of capillary hemangioma that occurs as rapidly growing, exophytic red nodule attached by a stalk to the skin and gingival or oral mucosa

12

What is a lymphangioma?

Benign lymphatic analog of hemangioma
-

13

what is a glomus tumor?

Benign very painful tumor that typically occurs in the distal portion of the digits
- modified SMC of glomus body

14

What is vascular ectasias?

-not true neoplasms; lesions characterized by localized dilation of pre-existing vessels
- Nevus flammus and port wine strain

15

What are spider telangiectasia?

pulsatile array of dilated subcutaneous arteries or arterioles that blanch when pressure is applied to the center seen in pregnant women and cirrhotic patients

16

What are hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia?

(Osler-Weber-Rendu disease); autosomal dominant disorder with widely distributed lesions composed of dilated capillaries and veins

17

What is eisenmenger syndrome?

The pulmonary arteries respond by medial hypertrophy and constriction to maintain normal pressures, however eventually resistance increases toward systemic levels and there is a reverse of the shunt to right to left with unoxygenated blood in the systemic circulation

18

What does the LAD supply?

infarct involves anterior wall of the left ventricle near apex; anterior 2/3 portion of ventricular septum; apex circumferentially and anteriolateral papillary muscle

19

What does the RCA supply?

Infarct involves inferior/posterior wall of the left ventricle; posterior portion of the ventricular septum; inferior/posterior right ventricular free wall in some cases

PDA 85% come from RCA

20

What does the LCA supply?

Infarct involves lateral wall of the left free ventricle except at apex

21

What is endocarditis in systemic lupus erthematosus?

Mitral and tricuspid valvulitis with small, sterile vegetations called Libman-Sacks endocarditis (present on both sides of valve leaflets)

22

What is carcinoid HD?

Cardiac manifestation of the systemic syndrome caused by carcinoid tumors

- Endocardium and valves of right side

23

What are the forms of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy?

-Autosomal dominant inheritance is the predominant pattern
-Genetic abnormalities largely affect the cytoskeleton
-X-linked cardiomyopathy has been linked to the gene for dystrophin

24

What are the non-viral cause of myocarditis?

-Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in South America
-Trichinosis: most common helminithic disease associated with cardiac involvement
-Lyme carditis
-AIDS myocarditis
-Inflammation and myocyte damage without a clear etiologic agent
-Myocarditis caused directly by HIV or opportunistic pathogen

25

What are the non-infectious cause of myocarditis?

-Allergic reactions (hypersensitivity) often to a particular drug
-Systemic diseases of immune origin: RF, SLE, polymositis, etc.
-Cardiac sarcoidosis and transplant rejection

26

What is senile cardiac amyloidosis?

-Exclusively a disease of elderly people
-Protein deposits derive from transthyretin
-Has a far better prognosis than systemic amyloidosis

27

What is a papillary fibroelastoma?

usually located on valves and appear as hairline projections, may represent organized thrombi

28

Can iron overload cause myocarditis?

Yes can cause dilation and systolic dysfunction
- accumulation of hemosiderin within cardiac myocytes