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Flashcards in Pharm cancer Deck (101):
1

FRONT

BACK

3

Define Cancer:

tissue overgrowth which is independent of the laws governing the remainder of the body. Serves no purpose to the body.

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What is the original definition for tumor?

A mass greater than 2cm

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Define neoplasm:

new growth

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T or F: All neoplams are cancer.

F. Neoplasm just refers to new growth. Does not specify if it is malignant or benign

11

T or F: Cells that are atropic or hypertrophic can be considered normal

TRUE-depends on life stage

13

T or F: Metaplasia is normal.

F. Metaplasia is always caused by "rebellious" cells

15

When cells are dysplayed, but have not penetrated the basement membrane of the organ they are described as a:

in situ neoplasm

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When growth penetrates through the basement membrane of an organ and can spread throughout the body it is described as an:

invasive neoplasm

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A tumor that is well-defined, has a low mitotic index, and does not metastatize is most likely:

benign

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A tumor that is poorly defined, poorly differentiated, has a high mitotic index and has metastasis is most likely:

malignant

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Define anaplasia:

When a cell no longer resmbles the original cell. Ex: original cell was cuboidal, new cell looks columnar

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Altered contact inhibition refers to:

the cells within a tumor's ablility to continue growing and multiplying despite normal growth parameters

27

Define autonomy:

cell's ability to disconnect from the normal laws of cell growth

29

How does a malignant tumor change the transport of sugar and amino acids?

Instead of nutrients going to appropriate cells they go straight to the tumor

31

T or F: A benign tumor is never life threatening

F. Depending on location benign tumors can be life threatening

33

List the 6 hallmarks of cancer:

1. self-sufficiency in growth signals 2. insensitivity to antigrowth signals 3. Evading apoptosis 4. Limitless replicative potential 5. Sustained angiogenesis 6. Tissue invasion and metastasis

35

Define angiogenesis:

the vascularization of neoplastic cells (tumor can develop circulation and grow quickly)

37

Why are tumor classifications important?

help us know the origin of the cancer, important for diagnosing and treating cancer-site of origin determines appropriate treatment

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Cancer found in epithelial cells:

carcinoma

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Cancer found in grandular tissue:

adenocarcinoma

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Cancer found in connective tissue:

sarcoma

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Cancer found in lymph tissue:

lymphoma

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Cancer found in blood forming tissue (marrow)

leukemia

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Cancer found in the uterus:

fibroma

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Cancer found in bones:

osteoma

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Cancer found in cartilage:

chondroma

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Cancer found in glial cells of the CNS:

gliomas

57

What is one of the most deadly types of cancer?

gliomas

59

Carcinogenesis refers to:

the foundations of how a cancer begins

61

T or F: All cancers have a huge genetic component.

F. Genetics plays a role, but not always.

63

Define protooncogenes:

normal genes that code for cellular growth

65

Define oncogenes:

mutant genes

67

What do oncogenes do in their non-mutant state?

direct protein synthesis and cellular growth

69

What are tumor suppressor genes?

Cells present in everyone that act to suppress the growth of tumors

71

What role do DNA repair genes play in carcinogenesis?

DNA repair genes can get mutated and become carcinogenic

73

List the 3 stages of cancer development:

Initiaion, promotion, progression

75

What happens during initiation?

DNA is damaged and mutates

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What happens during promotion?

Upon exposure to a carcinogenic environment/genetics cancerous cells get enhanced

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What happens during progression?

local invasiveness, angiogenesis, metatasis-cancerous growth continues, adjacent organs may be invaded

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During initiation, what is happening on a cellular level?

DNA is damaged and cells mutate

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What is happening on a cellular level during promotion?

oncogenes are activated by a promoter agent

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What is happening on a cellular level during progression?

a malignant tumor is growing and spreading

87

What are tumor-suppressor genes?

In their normal state negatively regulate proliferation-anti-oncogenes

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What happens if tumor-suppressor genes are in an unsteady state?

oncogenes will take over

91

Viral insertion of HPV, HCV, or EBV can have what effect on a protooncogen gene?

can cause it to mutate

93

Point mutations, gene amplification, and chromosomal rearrangement are all examples of:

protooncogene mutations

95

Cancer is predominantly a disease of _____________

aging

97

How do recurrent infections/inflammation relate to cancer?

Every time cells are killed off and need to re-grow there is a possibility of mutation.

99

T or F: Cancer can easily develop after 1 cell mutation.

F. multiple mutations aare required before cancer can develop

101

T or F: When tumor suppression genes are inactivated, oncogenes will be activated.

T. Tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes have an inverse relationship. When one is on the other will be off.

103

T or F: Once oncogenes are activated the development of cancer can take years.

TRUE

105

If a person is exposed to mutagens and somatic cells mutate, this mutation (will/will not) be passed on to next generations.

will NOT

107

If a person is exposed to mutagens and germline cells mutate, this mutation (will/will not) be passed on to next generations.

will

109

How might H. pylori cause cancer?

People who have chronic stomach ulcers (inflammation and constant cellular repair) are at high risk of developing gastrinoma

111

Chronic inflammation is an important factor in the development of cancer because:

it can promote mutation, and invoke a decreased response to DNA damage

113

Define proliferation:

The growth or production of cells by mutiplication of parts

115

Define differentiation:

Describes how much or how little the tumor looks like the normal tissue it came from

117

What are tumor cell markers?

biological substances that can be detected in blood, spinal fluid, or urine

119

Give some examples of tumor cell markers:

hormones, enzymes, genes, antigens, antibodies

121

What are some purposes of tumor cell markers?

Can be used to screen, diagnose, mark tumor progression

123

T or F: Discovering a tumor cell marker by itself is enough to make a diagnosis of cancer

F. Markers are never used alone or as a diagnostic test.

125

When making a diagnosis one should first:

Assess what the patient looks like

127

The most common vehicle used for cancer to travel through the body is the ___________________

lymphatic system

129

List the 4 most common sites to find cancer:

Brain, bones, liver, lungs

131

Why are the brain, bones, liver, and lungs prone to developing cancer?

They are all highly vascular organs

133

A cancer in stage 1 is:

confined to organ or origin

135

A cancer in stage 2 is:

locally invasive

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A cancer in stage 3:

has lymph node invasion

139

A cancer in stage 4:

has spread to distant sites throughout the body

141

What are the 4 phases of tumor spread?

transformation, growth, local invasion, distant metastasis

143

Define metastasis:

primary cancer cells travel and proliferate in other sites

145

On a biopsy report T refers to a tumor's:

size (T0=no tumor-T3=skin/chest wall involved by invasion

147

On a biopsy report N refers to a tumor's:

node invasion (N0=no axillary nodes involved-N2=mobile anda fixed nodes involved

149

On a biopsy report M refers to a tumor's:

degree of metastases (M0=no metastases, M1=demonstratable metastases, M2=suspected metastases)

151

How is tumor grading different than cancer stages?

Tumor grading is assessing the tumor itself, not the stage of cancer

153

A tumor in Grade 1 is:

well differentiated and resembles the tissue or origin

155

A tumor in Grade 2 is:

Moderatly differentiated, with increased size and shape of cells

157

A tumor in Grade 3 is:

poorly differentiated, malignant, a lot of variation in the size and shape of the tumor

159

A tumor in Grade 4:

has no resemblance to the original tissue, malignant

161

Patients with cancer who have undergone chemotherapy may exhibit clinical manifestations such as:

Anemia, thromocytopenia (platelets <5000), pain, and cachexia (severe malnutrition)

163

What are some warning signs of cancer?

Lump or swelling, a sore that doesn't heal, recent change in a wart/mole, unusual discharge, changes in bladder/bowel habits, nagging cough/hoarseness, difficulty in swallowing, extreme weight loss

165

To make a definitive cancer diagnosis a clinician should:

Note persistence of sx's, identify various cancer markers, identify mass/metastasis, have a morphological confirmation

167

T or F: Chemotherapy is systemic and will kill good cells as well as cancerous cells

TRUE

169

Chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and immunotherapy are all methods of:

managing cancer

171

Skin dryness and hair loss are common side effects of:

chemotherapy

173

Chemotherapy's ability to suppress bone marrow refers to:

suppressing RBC's and platelets

175

T or F: childhood cancers are a disease entity.

F, they are described as a spectrum of malignancies

177

What are the most common childhood cancers?

leukemias, sarcomas, and embryonic tumors

179

What are embryonic tumors?

originate during uterine life, occurs when embryonic tissue does not fully mature, then later proliferates in this immature form

181

Childhood tumors are commonly called ____________

blasts

183

This type fo cancer commonly involves tissue (childhood or adult)

childhood

185

This type of cancer has few prevention strategies

childhood

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This type of cancer has strong environmental and lifestyle influences

adult cancer

189

This type of cancer commonly involves organs

adult cancer

191

This type of cancer is 80% preventable

adult cancer

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This type of cancer has a >80% cure rate

childhood

195

This type of cancer has fewer long term consequences

adult cancer

197

What type of cancer is often detected early with screening?

adult cancer

199

Prenatal exposure and increased parental age are possible environmental factors for:

childhood cancer

201

What is the prognosis for childhood cancer?

80% are fully cured