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Flashcards in inflamtion-C Deck (72):
1

What are the body's 3 levels of defense against infection?

(Level one: Physical barriers, Level 2: inflammation) non-specific immunity, Level 3: specific immunity

3

Define Non-specific Immunity:

The innate resistance and protection that the natural epithelial barrier and inflammation provide, does not recognize specific antigens, it just attacks foreign bodies.

5

What are some examples of physical barries in non-specific immunity?

skin, hair follicles, cilia/cough reflex, stomach acid, mucous membranes

7

What cellular mechanism contributes to non-specific immunity?

Inflammation

9

T or F: Stating that non-specific immunity is species specific is referring to differences in immunity between people and other species, such as elephants.

FALSE. It is referring to the fact that if a pathogen gets into an organ, that organ will react. Ex: pathogen in the lungs, the lungs will respond, but other organs will not.(excluding systemic infections)

11

Which three general groups of cells respond in non-specific immunity?

granulocytes, agranulocytes, lymphocytes

13

Which cells are considered the first responders, much like soldiers on the front line of a battle?

Neutrophils

15

Which granulocytes are likely to be present during an allergy episode or parasite invasion?

Eosinophils

17

Which cells have an impotant role in stimulating mediators?

basophils

19

Monocytes are the premature form of:

macrophages

21

Macrophages are like bringing in the tanks, and are considered the _____________ responders

second

23

Neutrophils and Macrophages both destroy invaders through a process called ___________

phagocytosis

25

The second line of defense after pysical barriers is

inflammation

27

What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?

redness, heat, swelling, pain

29

What are the three characteristic changes that occur during the vascular (first) phase of inflammation?

vasodilation, increased vasular permeability and leakage of fluid out of the vessel, white blood cells adhere to the inner walls of vessels

31

Exudate refers to:

fluids that may be exuded from the cite of an injury during the inflammation period

33

What are some systemic effects of inflammation?

fever, leukocytosis, septic shock, scar tissue formation

35

During the cellular phase of the inflammatory response neutrophils and macrophages:

eat and destroy cellular debris and infectious agents

37

During the cellular phase of the inflammatory response these cells prevent the inflammatory response from spreading to areas of healthy tissue :

Eosinophils

39

Platelets are responsible for:

Stopping any bleeding that has occurred

41

List the three protein systems responsible for mediating inflammation:

complement system, clotting system, kinen system

43

The compliment system is extremely important because activation of the compliment cascade:

may destroy pathogens directly and can activate or collaborate with virtually every other component of the inflammatory response

45

Proteins of the ____________ system are among the body's most potent defenders against bacterial infection

compliment system

47

What are the three different ways the complement system can be activated?

1. The classical pathway, (if #1 fails) 2. The lectin pathway, 3. alternative pathway

49

Which pathway is used when the complement system is activated by antibodies bound to antigens?

The classical pathway

51

Activating the complement system by certain bacterial carbohydrates is an example of which pathway?

The Lectin pathway

53

Activating the complement system through the alternative pathway involves:

Activation by gram-negative bacterial and fungal cell wall polysaccharides

55

T or F: The complement system is nonspecific.

TRUE

57

T or F: The alternative pathway is organism specific.

TRUE-This pathway will only be activated if gram-negative or fungal organisms are present

59

The ____________ is a group of plasma proteins that form a fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflamed site

clotting system

61

The purpose of the clotting system is to A.prevent the spread of infection to adjacent tissues B.trap microorganisms and foreign bodies at the injury site for removal C.form a clot that stops bleeding D. provide a framework for future repair and healing E. All of the above

E

63

T or F: The kinin system augments inflammation in many ways.

TRUE

65

The primary kinin produced from the kinin system is:

bradykinin

67

Bradykinin has what effect on blood vessels?

increases vascular permeability, causes vasodilation

69

List 4 chemical mediators of inflammation:

histamine/leukotrienes, prostaglandins, cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

71

_______________ inflammation is a defensive response to stimuli causing a protective vascular connective tissue reaction

acute

73

T or F: Acute inflammation is a healthy response by the body to a harmful situation.

TRUE

75

___________ inflammation is a dangerous, out of control immunologic reaction lasting longer than 2 weeks.

Chronic

77

Persistance of infection, antigen, or foreign body can lead to:

chronic inflammation

79

Some microorganisms produce toxins that can remain even after they themselves are killed. This can lead to:

prolonged irritation, thus chronic inflammation

81

T or F: Chronic inflammation can lead to cancer, Diabetes II, arthritis, cardiovascualr disease, and other chronic conditions.

TRUE

83

If non-specific immunity is not successful in destroying a pathogen what comes into play?

specific (aquired) immunity

85

What are the three main keypoints to remember regarding aquired immunity?

1. recognize self from non-self 2. memory 3. specificity

87

An antibody will only have an effect if an antigen is________

recognized.

89

_____ and _____ lymphocytes play a very active role in aquired immunity.

T, B

91

These lymphocytes originate in bone marrow

B lymphocytes

93

Humoral immunity is mediated by _________ and produced by_________ and ____________.

antibodies, plasma and memory B cells

95

List the 4 different types of antibodies:

IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE

97

These antibodies are considered the 1st degree response

IgM

99

These antibodies are considered the second degree response

IgG

101

These antibodies are involved in allergic reactions:

IgA, IgE

103

Infants are born with __________antibodies that drop until 6 months-when it is recommended to give a flu shot.

IgG

105

This antibody is developed at birth.

IgM

107

What are the main functions of antibodies?

neutralize antigens, neutralize viruses, promote phagocytosis of bacteria, boost inflammatory process

109

Memory B cells are important in humoral immunity because:

they can rapidly produce more antibody to withstand a second challene by the same antigen

111

These lymphocytes originate in the thymus

T lymphocytes

113

Cellular immunity is mediated by

T cells

115

Memory T cells are important because:

they can respond more quickly to a second challenge by the same antigen

117

Killer T cells:

Directly destroy antigens

119

Helper T cells:

stimulate T and B cells

121

Suppressor T cells:

inhibit T and B cells

123

What are Antigen Presenting Cells (APC's)?

Cells that "process" antigens so they can be presented to cells of the immune system-thus initiating the immune response

125

An example of an APC is a

macrophage

127

Monocytes and macrophages control the immune system by:

recognizing antigens and tolerating self-antigens

129

What is a cytokine?

Like a messenger, a substance secreted by certain cells of the immune system that have an effect on other cells-there are several different kinds

131

Define specific immunity:

has memory and more rapidly targets and eradicates a second infection of a particular disease-causing microorganism

133

By what two ways can a person aquire specific immunity to a disease?

Active or passive acquisition

135

Define active aquired immunity:

produced by an individual after either natural exposure to an antigen or after immunization

137

Define passive aquired immunity:

occurs when preformed antibodies or T lymphocytes are transferred from a donor to the recepient, as in from mother to fetus or newborn

139

______________ immunity is long-lived, while ____________ immunity is only temporary because the antibodies or T cells are eventually destroyed.

Active aquired, passive

141

Elderly persons may have a decrease in immune function due to what three main factors?

Thymus atrophies, decreased T-cell response, increased autoantibodies

143

What is the difference between inflammation and an immune response?

Inflammation is non-specific and has no memory-will react the same @ initial and subsequent exposures; immune response is antigen specific and has a memory