Flashcards in inflamtion-C Deck (72):
What are the body's 3 levels of defense against infection?
(Level one: Physical barriers, Level 2: inflammation) non-specific immunity, Level 3: specific immunity
Define Non-specific Immunity:
The innate resistance and protection that the natural epithelial barrier and inflammation provide, does not recognize specific antigens, it just attacks foreign bodies.
What are some examples of physical barries in non-specific immunity?
skin, hair follicles, cilia/cough reflex, stomach acid, mucous membranes
What cellular mechanism contributes to non-specific immunity?
T or F: Stating that non-specific immunity is species specific is referring to differences in immunity between people and other species, such as elephants.
FALSE. It is referring to the fact that if a pathogen gets into an organ, that organ will react. Ex: pathogen in the lungs, the lungs will respond, but other organs will not.(excluding systemic infections)
Which three general groups of cells respond in non-specific immunity?
granulocytes, agranulocytes, lymphocytes
Which cells are considered the first responders, much like soldiers on the front line of a battle?
Which granulocytes are likely to be present during an allergy episode or parasite invasion?
Which cells have an impotant role in stimulating mediators?
Monocytes are the premature form of:
Macrophages are like bringing in the tanks, and are considered the _____________ responders
Neutrophils and Macrophages both destroy invaders through a process called ___________
The second line of defense after pysical barriers is
What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?
redness, heat, swelling, pain
What are the three characteristic changes that occur during the vascular (first) phase of inflammation?
vasodilation, increased vasular permeability and leakage of fluid out of the vessel, white blood cells adhere to the inner walls of vessels
Exudate refers to:
fluids that may be exuded from the cite of an injury during the inflammation period
What are some systemic effects of inflammation?
fever, leukocytosis, septic shock, scar tissue formation
During the cellular phase of the inflammatory response neutrophils and macrophages:
eat and destroy cellular debris and infectious agents
During the cellular phase of the inflammatory response these cells prevent the inflammatory response from spreading to areas of healthy tissue :
Platelets are responsible for:
Stopping any bleeding that has occurred
List the three protein systems responsible for mediating inflammation:
complement system, clotting system, kinen system
The compliment system is extremely important because activation of the compliment cascade:
may destroy pathogens directly and can activate or collaborate with virtually every other component of the inflammatory response
Proteins of the ____________ system are among the body's most potent defenders against bacterial infection
What are the three different ways the complement system can be activated?
1. The classical pathway, (if #1 fails) 2. The lectin pathway, 3. alternative pathway
Which pathway is used when the complement system is activated by antibodies bound to antigens?
The classical pathway
Activating the complement system by certain bacterial carbohydrates is an example of which pathway?
The Lectin pathway
Activating the complement system through the alternative pathway involves:
Activation by gram-negative bacterial and fungal cell wall polysaccharides
T or F: The complement system is nonspecific.
T or F: The alternative pathway is organism specific.
TRUE-This pathway will only be activated if gram-negative or fungal organisms are present
The ____________ is a group of plasma proteins that form a fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflamed site
The purpose of the clotting system is to A.prevent the spread of infection to adjacent tissues B.trap microorganisms and foreign bodies at the injury site for removal C.form a clot that stops bleeding D. provide a framework for future repair and healing E. All of the above
T or F: The kinin system augments inflammation in many ways.
The primary kinin produced from the kinin system is:
Bradykinin has what effect on blood vessels?
increases vascular permeability, causes vasodilation
List 4 chemical mediators of inflammation:
histamine/leukotrienes, prostaglandins, cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
_______________ inflammation is a defensive response to stimuli causing a protective vascular connective tissue reaction
T or F: Acute inflammation is a healthy response by the body to a harmful situation.
___________ inflammation is a dangerous, out of control immunologic reaction lasting longer than 2 weeks.
Persistance of infection, antigen, or foreign body can lead to:
Some microorganisms produce toxins that can remain even after they themselves are killed. This can lead to:
prolonged irritation, thus chronic inflammation
T or F: Chronic inflammation can lead to cancer, Diabetes II, arthritis, cardiovascualr disease, and other chronic conditions.
If non-specific immunity is not successful in destroying a pathogen what comes into play?
specific (aquired) immunity
What are the three main keypoints to remember regarding aquired immunity?
1. recognize self from non-self 2. memory 3. specificity
An antibody will only have an effect if an antigen is________
_____ and _____ lymphocytes play a very active role in aquired immunity.
These lymphocytes originate in bone marrow
Humoral immunity is mediated by _________ and produced by_________ and ____________.
antibodies, plasma and memory B cells
List the 4 different types of antibodies:
IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE
These antibodies are considered the 1st degree response
These antibodies are considered the second degree response
These antibodies are involved in allergic reactions:
Infants are born with __________antibodies that drop until 6 months-when it is recommended to give a flu shot.
This antibody is developed at birth.
What are the main functions of antibodies?
neutralize antigens, neutralize viruses, promote phagocytosis of bacteria, boost inflammatory process
Memory B cells are important in humoral immunity because:
they can rapidly produce more antibody to withstand a second challene by the same antigen
These lymphocytes originate in the thymus
Cellular immunity is mediated by
Memory T cells are important because:
they can respond more quickly to a second challenge by the same antigen
Killer T cells:
Directly destroy antigens
Helper T cells:
stimulate T and B cells
Suppressor T cells:
inhibit T and B cells
What are Antigen Presenting Cells (APC's)?
Cells that "process" antigens so they can be presented to cells of the immune system-thus initiating the immune response
An example of an APC is a
Monocytes and macrophages control the immune system by:
recognizing antigens and tolerating self-antigens
What is a cytokine?
Like a messenger, a substance secreted by certain cells of the immune system that have an effect on other cells-there are several different kinds
Define specific immunity:
has memory and more rapidly targets and eradicates a second infection of a particular disease-causing microorganism
By what two ways can a person aquire specific immunity to a disease?
Active or passive acquisition
Define active aquired immunity:
produced by an individual after either natural exposure to an antigen or after immunization
Define passive aquired immunity:
occurs when preformed antibodies or T lymphocytes are transferred from a donor to the recepient, as in from mother to fetus or newborn
______________ immunity is long-lived, while ____________ immunity is only temporary because the antibodies or T cells are eventually destroyed.
Active aquired, passive
Elderly persons may have a decrease in immune function due to what three main factors?
Thymus atrophies, decreased T-cell response, increased autoantibodies