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Flashcards in pathopharm 1 Deck (95):
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Define Pathology:

Study of disease and abnormality

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Define Pathophysiology:

Study of body function in the diseased or abnormal state

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What is etiology?

The origin of a disease

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Give examples of etiology:

genetics, aging, environment, infectious, traumatic, congenital

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What is pathogenesis?

the manner of development of a disease, the "how" the disease develops, can be on a cellular level

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What are manifestations?

The clinical features of a disease-signs and symptoms of a disease

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Give examples of some manifestations:

morphology, subclinical, signs/symptoms, lesions, complications/sequela, resolution

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What is a symptom of a disease?

subjective, what the patient experiences about the illness/disease. Cannot be measured or observed.

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What is a sign of a disease?

Objective, physical manifestation of the illness that can be observed and measured.

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Give an example of a symptom:

pain level

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Give an example of a sign:

A person with hypertension has a bp of 140/90

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Describe the development of the disease pneumonia:

Etiology: bacteria or virus Pathogenesis: bacteria duplicates and eventually compromises the exchange between oxygen and co2 Manifestations: fluid in lungs, coughing, sputum, etc.

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Define Morphology:

What cells look like

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Define subclinical:

term used to describe signs and symptoms of a disease a patient does not know they have

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Give an example of subclinical findings:

Pt comes in complaining of frequent headaches and attributes them to stress. However, pt is unaware he/she has hypertension, which is the real cause of the headaches

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Define complications:

The continuation of an illness

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Give an example of a complication:

phenomena is a complication of a flu, infection is a complication of a cut

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What is a sequela of a disease?

A more permanent complication a pt may not recover from

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Give an example of a sequela:

if a pt gets frost bite and needs to have a limb removed, that would be a permanent complication of the frostbite

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Define Resolution:

After treatment disease completely goes away and resolves

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Define Drug in the medical, theraputic sense:

a substance taken to prevent, cure, or reduce symptoms of a medical condition

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Define drug in a broad sense:

a chemical that interacts with a living organism to produce a biologic response

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T or F: Once taken, a drug changes what is biologically happening in the body

FALSE: Drugs cannot change what is happening, they simply modifies and re-routes the pain response

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Around how many documented Rx's are prescribed each year in the US?

over 3 billion

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In 1997 this was passed which created a fast track approval system for drugs treating AIDS, cancer, and other life threatening conditions

The FDA Modernizing Act

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Before the FDA Modernizing act how long could it take for a drug to get approved? How did the act change this?

before it could take up to 30 months, the act reduced this time to 15 months

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Which agency is responsibe for ensuring the safety of drugs and medical devices?

The FDA

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Define "scheduled drugs"

Drugs with a high potential for dependence or abuse

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Define "OTC drugs"

"Over The Counter" drugs, do not require an Rx

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List the 4 different names a drug can have:

chemical, generic, international, trade

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What is a drug's chemical name?

describes the chemical composition of the drug and is assigned using the standard nomenclature established by the IUPAC-a drug has only ONE chemical name

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What is a drug's generic name?

less complicated and easier to remember than the chemical name. Each drug has ONE generic name in the USA, can have a different international generic name.

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What is a drug's trade name?

assigned by the company marketing the drug. "brand" name. Each drug may have SEVERAL trade names.

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N-acetyl-para-aminophenol is an example of a ______________ name

chemical

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Tylenol is an example of a ___________ name

trade

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acetaminophen (USA) or paracetamol (IN) are examples of ____________ names

generic

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Define pharmacology:

the study of substances that interact with living organisms to produce a biologic response

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List the 4 principles of pharmacology:

1. pharmaceutical 2. pharmacokinetic 3. pharmacodynamic 4. pharmacotherapeutics

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Define pharmaceutical:

refers to a group of interdisciplinary studies of a drug

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Define pharmacokinetic:

how the BODY reacts TO the DRUG/ how the drug moves through the body *kinetic-body moves-how the body effects the drug

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Define Pharmacodynamic:

the effect of the drug on the body **dynamic=the body can produce a dynamic range of effects on the body

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Define absorption:

the reate at which a drug leaves its original site (sie of administration)

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Define distibution:

the transfer of the drug throughout the body

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What are some things that can hinder drug distribution?

the blood-brain barrier, fat soluable, protein binding

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Define metabolism as it relates to a drug:

The biochemical transformation of the drug-how it is broken down

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Which organ is especially important for drug metabolism?

The liver

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Define excretion as it relates to drugs:

how the drug leaves the body

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What is the primary organ involved in drug excretion?

The kidney, but intestinal tract and liver also play a role

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Absorption, distribution, metabolsim and excretion are all examples of drug__________

pharmacokinetics

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The mechanism of action, effects, and drug receptor interaction are all pieces of ____________

pharmacodynamics

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What are side effects?

Effects of a drug other than what is targeted. Can be positive or negative.

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What are adverse effects?

Refers to negative effects of a drug, can be fatal, not good!

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What does drug receptor interation refer to?

In order for a drug to work, it must fit into the proper receptor site on a cell-if not it will not bind, and will not work

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What is a patient's functional state?

Refers to the state of the patient BEFORE medication is administered

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What does pharmacotheraputics refer to?

the effectiveness and safety of a drug

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What is a dose response?

The pt's response to a certain drug dose-varies from pt to pt and can depend on what disease state/stage they are in

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A thereaputic range refers to:

The lowest and highest levels of a drug in the blood

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Define peak:

The highest level of a drug in the blood

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Define trough:

The lowest level of a drug in the blood

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Define subtheraputic:

A dose of a medication too low to have a theraputic effect on the pt

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Define lethal dose:

A dose of a drug that is too high, can be fatal

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Define drug 1/2 life:

The time required for drug's plasma concentration to be reduced by half (time it takes for 1/2 of original dose to leave the body)

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Define loading dose:

An initial higher dose of a drug given to a pt

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Define maitenance dose:

dose required to keep a steady theraputic level of drug in the bloodstream

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How many half lifes does it take to achieve a "steady state" of a drug?

4 to 5

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What is baseline data?

pre-drug administration data for a pt

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Being aware of the side effects of a drug and how to intervene if necessary is also called___________

stratification of risk

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What are the 5 rights of drug administration?

Right: Patient, Drug, Dose, Route, Time

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Cells function normally when they are in a ______________ state

homeostatic

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Excess physiologic or pathologic stress may force cells into an ___________ state

adaptation

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Too much stress that exceeds the cell's adaptive capacity can lead to cell ___________

injury

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T or F: Cell injury can be reversible or irreversible.

TRUE

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Cell death is a direct response of ___________

irreversible injury

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Define Hypoxia:

lack of oxygen to cells

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What is the #1 cause of cell injury?

hypoxia

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Define necrosis:

eschemic-lack of blood flow-without blood flow cells die

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Define atrophy:

cell is shrunken, looses its integrity and cell membrane

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Define hypertrophy:

cell is overgrown, too large

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Define hyperplasia:

rate of cell division has increased, BAD

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Define metaplasia:

ALWAYS bad. Cells are multiplying too fast AND changing shape

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Define dysplasia:

cells grow disorganized, go in different directions, but still the same original shape (hyperplasia can lead to dysplasia)

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Why do cells change?

in response to changes in environment and for protection and social control

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Karyolysis and pyknosis are two examples of ____________

cellular injury related to the DNA/nucleus

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Hypoxia is caused by:

low oxygen environment due to a low Hgb or RBC

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What is a condition that can cause hypoxia?

sicle cell anemia

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Club fingers are a classic sign of ________

chronic hypoxia

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Define anoxia:

sudden acute total lack of oxygen caused by a sudden abstruction

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Define progressive hypoxia:

loss of oxygen caused by gradual arterial obstruction

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What is apoptosis?

programmed cell death, killing is quick and neat

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T or F: Apoptosis is an active process and requires energy and protein synthesis

TRUE

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Necrosis inside the heart appears as

coagulation

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Necrosis inside the brain appears as

liquefaction

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____________ is an organism that causes bubbles in gangrene

Clostirdium

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As far as cellular damage is concerned, the goal is to:

intervene when damage is still reversible