Flashcards in pathopharm 1 Deck (95):
Study of disease and abnormality
Study of body function in the diseased or abnormal state
What is etiology?
The origin of a disease
Give examples of etiology:
genetics, aging, environment, infectious, traumatic, congenital
What is pathogenesis?
the manner of development of a disease, the "how" the disease develops, can be on a cellular level
What are manifestations?
The clinical features of a disease-signs and symptoms of a disease
Give examples of some manifestations:
morphology, subclinical, signs/symptoms, lesions, complications/sequela, resolution
What is a symptom of a disease?
subjective, what the patient experiences about the illness/disease. Cannot be measured or observed.
What is a sign of a disease?
Objective, physical manifestation of the illness that can be observed and measured.
Give an example of a symptom:
Give an example of a sign:
A person with hypertension has a bp of 140/90
Describe the development of the disease pneumonia:
Etiology: bacteria or virus Pathogenesis: bacteria duplicates and eventually compromises the exchange between oxygen and co2 Manifestations: fluid in lungs, coughing, sputum, etc.
What cells look like
term used to describe signs and symptoms of a disease a patient does not know they have
Give an example of subclinical findings:
Pt comes in complaining of frequent headaches and attributes them to stress. However, pt is unaware he/she has hypertension, which is the real cause of the headaches
The continuation of an illness
Give an example of a complication:
phenomena is a complication of a flu, infection is a complication of a cut
What is a sequela of a disease?
A more permanent complication a pt may not recover from
Give an example of a sequela:
if a pt gets frost bite and needs to have a limb removed, that would be a permanent complication of the frostbite
After treatment disease completely goes away and resolves
Define Drug in the medical, theraputic sense:
a substance taken to prevent, cure, or reduce symptoms of a medical condition
Define drug in a broad sense:
a chemical that interacts with a living organism to produce a biologic response
T or F: Once taken, a drug changes what is biologically happening in the body
FALSE: Drugs cannot change what is happening, they simply modifies and re-routes the pain response
Around how many documented Rx's are prescribed each year in the US?
over 3 billion
In 1997 this was passed which created a fast track approval system for drugs treating AIDS, cancer, and other life threatening conditions
The FDA Modernizing Act
Before the FDA Modernizing act how long could it take for a drug to get approved? How did the act change this?
before it could take up to 30 months, the act reduced this time to 15 months
Which agency is responsibe for ensuring the safety of drugs and medical devices?
Define "scheduled drugs"
Drugs with a high potential for dependence or abuse
Define "OTC drugs"
"Over The Counter" drugs, do not require an Rx
List the 4 different names a drug can have:
chemical, generic, international, trade
What is a drug's chemical name?
describes the chemical composition of the drug and is assigned using the standard nomenclature established by the IUPAC-a drug has only ONE chemical name
What is a drug's generic name?
less complicated and easier to remember than the chemical name. Each drug has ONE generic name in the USA, can have a different international generic name.
What is a drug's trade name?
assigned by the company marketing the drug. "brand" name. Each drug may have SEVERAL trade names.
N-acetyl-para-aminophenol is an example of a ______________ name
Tylenol is an example of a ___________ name
acetaminophen (USA) or paracetamol (IN) are examples of ____________ names
the study of substances that interact with living organisms to produce a biologic response
List the 4 principles of pharmacology:
1. pharmaceutical 2. pharmacokinetic 3. pharmacodynamic 4. pharmacotherapeutics
refers to a group of interdisciplinary studies of a drug
how the BODY reacts TO the DRUG/ how the drug moves through the body *kinetic-body moves-how the body effects the drug
the effect of the drug on the body **dynamic=the body can produce a dynamic range of effects on the body
the reate at which a drug leaves its original site (sie of administration)
the transfer of the drug throughout the body
What are some things that can hinder drug distribution?
the blood-brain barrier, fat soluable, protein binding
Define metabolism as it relates to a drug:
The biochemical transformation of the drug-how it is broken down
Which organ is especially important for drug metabolism?
Define excretion as it relates to drugs:
how the drug leaves the body
What is the primary organ involved in drug excretion?
The kidney, but intestinal tract and liver also play a role
Absorption, distribution, metabolsim and excretion are all examples of drug__________
The mechanism of action, effects, and drug receptor interaction are all pieces of ____________
What are side effects?
Effects of a drug other than what is targeted. Can be positive or negative.
What are adverse effects?
Refers to negative effects of a drug, can be fatal, not good!
What does drug receptor interation refer to?
In order for a drug to work, it must fit into the proper receptor site on a cell-if not it will not bind, and will not work
What is a patient's functional state?
Refers to the state of the patient BEFORE medication is administered
What does pharmacotheraputics refer to?
the effectiveness and safety of a drug
What is a dose response?
The pt's response to a certain drug dose-varies from pt to pt and can depend on what disease state/stage they are in
A thereaputic range refers to:
The lowest and highest levels of a drug in the blood
The highest level of a drug in the blood
The lowest level of a drug in the blood
A dose of a medication too low to have a theraputic effect on the pt
Define lethal dose:
A dose of a drug that is too high, can be fatal
Define drug 1/2 life:
The time required for drug's plasma concentration to be reduced by half (time it takes for 1/2 of original dose to leave the body)
Define loading dose:
An initial higher dose of a drug given to a pt
Define maitenance dose:
dose required to keep a steady theraputic level of drug in the bloodstream
How many half lifes does it take to achieve a "steady state" of a drug?
4 to 5
What is baseline data?
pre-drug administration data for a pt
Being aware of the side effects of a drug and how to intervene if necessary is also called___________
stratification of risk
What are the 5 rights of drug administration?
Right: Patient, Drug, Dose, Route, Time
Cells function normally when they are in a ______________ state
Excess physiologic or pathologic stress may force cells into an ___________ state
Too much stress that exceeds the cell's adaptive capacity can lead to cell ___________
T or F: Cell injury can be reversible or irreversible.
Cell death is a direct response of ___________
lack of oxygen to cells
What is the #1 cause of cell injury?
eschemic-lack of blood flow-without blood flow cells die
cell is shrunken, looses its integrity and cell membrane
cell is overgrown, too large
rate of cell division has increased, BAD
ALWAYS bad. Cells are multiplying too fast AND changing shape
cells grow disorganized, go in different directions, but still the same original shape (hyperplasia can lead to dysplasia)
Why do cells change?
in response to changes in environment and for protection and social control
Karyolysis and pyknosis are two examples of ____________
cellular injury related to the DNA/nucleus
Hypoxia is caused by:
low oxygen environment due to a low Hgb or RBC
What is a condition that can cause hypoxia?
sicle cell anemia
Club fingers are a classic sign of ________
sudden acute total lack of oxygen caused by a sudden abstruction
Define progressive hypoxia:
loss of oxygen caused by gradual arterial obstruction
What is apoptosis?
programmed cell death, killing is quick and neat
T or F: Apoptosis is an active process and requires energy and protein synthesis
Necrosis inside the heart appears as
Necrosis inside the brain appears as
____________ is an organism that causes bubbles in gangrene