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Flashcards in week 5 Deck (46):
1

What two factors are needed for an infection to occur?

A host and an organism

3

Define infection:

an invasion of a host caused by a pathogen

5

What are 4 different kinds of infections that can occur?

Bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic

7

What is one of the most common and deadly bacterial infections today?

MRSA-caused by staph aureus

9

Bacteremia/speticemia is used to describe:

a systemic bacterial infection, in which bacteria is found in the blood

11

What is a common cause of bacteremia?

E.coli

13

What are 3 examples of infections caused by viruses?

H1N1, HIV, the flu

15

Why are viral infections difficult to treat?

They do not follow a normal organism growth pattern, they are abnormally shaped, and have no nucleus just reverse transcriptase

17

Viruses are protected by several layers of ____________.

proteins

19

What are three examples of fungal infections?

candida (yeast), PCP, aspergillus

21

What are two examples of parasitic infections?

giardiasis, trichinosis

23

List the steps in the chain of transmission?

Infectious agent, susceptible host, portal of entry, mode of transmission, portal of exit, reservoir

25

T or F: The chain of transmission cannot be broken.

FALSE.

27

List three ways we can break the chain of transmission:

handwashing, education, @ portal of entry: proper wound care

29

Under normal circumstances inflammation can result in:

increasing healing, decreasing infection

31

T or F: Inflammation can result from infection.

TRUE

33

T or F: Infection can result from inflammation.

FALSE- inflammation will not cause infection, inflammation is always in response to an infection

35

Define hypersensitivity:

an altered immunologic response to an antigen resulting in disease or damage to the host

37

How does hypersensitivity develop?

a pathologic immune response develops after one or multiple exposures to an antigen

39

What is an allergy?

an exaggerated response to the environment

41

What is autoimmunity?

intolerance to self-antigens, does not recognize self as self

43

Define alloimmunity:

occurs when the immune system of on individual produces an immunologic response against tissues of another individual during transfusions, transplanted tissue, or a fetus during pregnancy

45

List the 4 mechanisms of hypersensitivity:

Type 1: IgE (allergies), Type 2: Tissue-specific, Type 3: Immune-complex, Type 4: Cell-mediated

47

What is happeneing during a Type I response?

histamine overreaction

49

What is an example of an allergic (IgE) response?

Seasonal rhinitis

51

What is happening during a Type II response?

destruction of cells due to antigen on membrane

53

What is an example of a Type II: Tissue Specific reaction?

Graves disease

55

What is happening during a type III response?

antigen-antibody complexes are deposited on vessels or tissues

57

What is an example of a Type III:Immune-complex reaction?

systemic lupus erythematosus

59

What is happening during a Type IV resonse?

T-cells are over sensitized and react to the enviroment

61

What is an example of a Type IV:cell-mediated reaction?

contact sensitivity to metals (jewelry) or poison ivy

63

What is the most rapid and severe immediatee hypersensitivity reaction?

anaphylaxis

65

Wht two types of immunodeficiencies exist?

congenital and aquired

67

What is an example of a congenital immunodeficiency?

agama globulin anemia

69

What is an example of an aquired immunodeficiency?

AIDS

71

T or F: HIV and AIDS are the same thing, and the terms can be used interchangeably

FALSE. An HIV infection can lead to AIDS, but they are NOT the same thing

73

T or F: Drugs can successfully counteract the HIV virus when it is inside human cells.

FALSE

75

What is the ultimate goal of HIV medications?

To control the disease, not cure it

77

What are CD4 cells?

Helper T and B cells

79

A person is considered to have AIDS when what conditions are met?

HIV infection + CD4 <200

81

What are opportunistic diseases?

Will take over the host when they get the opportunity, for example, when a person becomes immunocompromised

83

What is an example of an opportunistic disease?

HIV-can live in a host for years and can turn into an AIDS infection if the host becomes immunocompromised

85

What happens during the acute phase of an HIV infection?

lympadenopathy, fevers, fatigue, malaise, joint pain, weight loss, muscle wasting

87

What is happening during the dormant phase of an HIV infection?

A patient will have no symptoms, but the virus is present in their system

89

What is the final stage of an HIV infection?

AIDS

91

How is HIV transmitted?

through blood and bodily fluids