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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (225)
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1

What % of patients with penicillin allergy will have a cephalosporin allergy

0.1

2

How do the general antimicrobial spectra differ between 1 sc, 2"d, 3rd, and 4th generation quinolones

  • 1st generation {nalidixic acid): only gram negative, no Pseudomonas coverage.
  • 2nd generation ( ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin): Staph aureus but not pneumococcus; some gram negative, including atypicals. Pseudomonas
  • 3rd generation (levofloxacin): gram negative, including Pseudomonas; gram positive,including Staph aureus and pneumococcus; expanded atypical coverage.
  • 4th generation (gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin): same as 3rd generation with enhanced coverage of pneumococcus decreased activity against Pseudomonas.

3

What is the best time to begin prophylactic antibiotic therapy for elective surgery

1 hour prior to the operation.

4

What % of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea are due to Clostridium difficile

10- 20°/o.

5

What is the incidence of C. diff in cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea?

10-20%.

6

What is the treatment for otosyphilis?

2-4 million U of benzathine penicillin IM every week for at least 3 weeks (up to 1 year) or 10 million U of penicillin G IV every day for 10 days followed by 2-4 million U of IM benzathine penicillin every week for 2 weeks plus prednisone 40-60 mg every day for 2-4 weeks followed by a taper.

7

What percent of all adverse drug reactions among hospitalized patients can be attributed to antibiotics?

25%.

8

After aminoglycoside treatments for Meniere's disease, when is the usual onset of disequilibrium?

4 days after treatment.

9

What is the incidence of rash after taking penicillin

5%.

10

What percent of patients with mononucleosis will develop a rash after taking amoxicillin?

50%.

11

What % of these patients will develop a rash the next time they take penicillin

50%.

12

What % of patients with mononucleosis will develop a rash after taking amoxicillin

50%.

13

Approximately what percent of C. difficile cases occur after taking quinolones?

55%.

14

How long may the onset of pseudomembranous enterocolitis begin after initiation of antibiotics?

6 weeks.

15

How long may the onset of pseudomembranous enterocolitis begin after initiation of antibiotics

6 weeks.

16

What can happen if a quinolone is given to a patient dependent on benzodiazepines?

Acute withdrawal symptoms from the benzodiazepines.

17

Aminoglycosides are effective against what bacteria

Aerobic gram negative bacilli (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa), enterococci, staphylococci and streptococci.

18

Aminoglycosides are effective against what bacteria?

Aerobic gram-negative bacilli (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa), enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci.

19

Mitochondrial mutations have been found to produce enhanced sensitivity to the ototoxic effects of which medications?

Aminoglycosides.

20

Which antibiotics potentiate muscle blockade induced by curare

Aminoglycosides.

21

Which penicillin analogue can be given to patients with a history of anaphylaxis after taking penicillin?

Aztreonam.

22

Which penicillin analogue can be given to patients with a history of anaphylaxis after taking penicillin

Aztreonam.

23

What region of the inner ear is most susceptible to permanent loss of hair cells?

Basal turn of the cochlea.

24

How do aminoglycosides exert their toxic effects on the outer hair cells of the inner ear?

Bind to the plasma membrane and displace calcium and magnesium; once transported into the cell, bind with phosphatidylinositol, causing disruption of the plasma membrane and inhibition of inositol triphosphate, resulting in cell death.

25

Which 1st generation cephalosporin has the longest half-life

Cefazolin (Ancef or Kefzol).

26

Which first-generation cephalosporin has the longest half-life?

Cefazolin.

27

Which 3rd generation cephalosporin is associated with possible clotting impairment

Cefoperazone (Cefobid).

28

Which antibiotic agents are bacteriostatic

Chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim.

29

Why are iodine solutions superior to chlorhexidine as a surgical antiseptic

Chlorhexidine is not effective against viruses and fungi.

30

Which antibiotics are most commonly associated with development of Clostridium difftcile

Clindamycin, cephalosporins, and penicillins.