What is the esophagotracheal Combitube?
A twin-lumen device with upper and lower balloons that is inserted blindly into the hypopharynx.
How is the gum bougie introducer for endotracheal intubation used in a patient with difficult airway?
Any part of the laryngeal airway, usually the posterior glottis, is visualized with the anterior commissure laryngoscope; the bougie is passed through the scope into the larynx; and the ETT is passed over the bougie.
Which laryngoscope blade is especially useful for patients with edematous or redundant tissue obstructing the view of the vocal cords?
What are the two primary disadvantages of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) compared with endotracheal intubation?
Easier to displace than a secured endotracheal tube (ETT) and does not protect from aspiration.
Why is jet ventilation contraindicated in patients with tracheal stenosis?
Expiration of air is more difficult than inspiration during jet ventilation in patients with tracheal stenosis and can result in air trapping and pneumothoraces.
What situations are best for the use of the lightwand during endotracheal intubation?
For patients with cervical spine injury, for children with mandibular hypoplasia, or when copious secretions are present.
Which laryngoscope blade has a high-resolution digital camera incorporated into it?
What is the primary advantage of the fast-track LMA?
It allows placement of an ETT without direct laryngoscopy.
What is the primary advantage of the ProSeal LMA?
It has an extra lumen to allow suctioning of the stomach.
What is the Sanders ventilator?
Jet ventilator that delivers 02 at
What are the best options for the "can't intubate, can't ventilate" situations after induction of general anesthesia?
LMA, transtracheal needle jet ventilation, Combitube, or surgical airway.
What physical features are predictors of difficult intubation in patients with OSAS?
Low hyoid (mental protuberance to hyoid distance > 30 em), mandibular deficiency, and large neck circumference (>45 em).
What is the primary advantage of the Combitube over an LMA?
Prevents aspiration if the patient vomits.
What are contraindications to LMA?
Upper airway obstruction, preexisting pulmonary aspiration, and conditions that restrict pulmonary compliance.
What is the death rate from anesthesia in patients with ar1 ASA class I or II
1 in 200,000.
Acute renal failure after major ablative head and neck cancer surgery increases the mortality risk by how much
How much epinephrine is contained in 1cc of 1:100,000 epinephrine?
What is the risk of perioperative MI in patients undergoing surgery within 3 to 6 months of an MI
What is the best time to begin prophylactic antibiotic therapy for elective surgery?
1hour prior to the operation.
What is the maximum recommended dose of cocaine
2 - 3 mg/kg.
What is the maximum recommended dose of bupivacaine
2 - 3 mg/kg.
Children may have unlimited clear liquids up to how many hours prior to scheduled anesthetic induction
2 to 3 hours.
What are the daily maintenance fluid requirements of a healthy 60-kg woman?
What is the maximum recommended dose ofbupivacaine?
When should oral hypoglycemics be discontinued prior to surgery
What is the duration of action of bupivacaine
3 - 10 hours.
What is the maximum recommended dose of lidocaine in a 60-kg woman?
300 mg (5mg/Kg) without epinephrine; 420 mg (7mg/Kg) with epinephrine.
What is the duration of action ofbupivacaine?
When is the risk of rebound hypertension from propranolol withdrawal the greatest
4 to 7 days after the drug is discontinued.
What is the maximum recommended dose of lidocaine
5 mg/kg without epinephrine; 7 mg/kg with epinephrine.