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Flashcards in Basic Sciences Deck (185)
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1

Pituitary microadenomas are smaller than_____ mm in diameter.

10

2

What is Sutherland's classification for nerve injury?

  • 1st degree Reversible conduction block.
  • 2nd degree Wallerian degeneration occurs but endoneurium stays intact and recovery is usually complete.
  • 3rd degree Endoneurium is destroyed but perineurium stays intact and recovery is incomplete.
  • 4th degree All is destroyed except for the epineurium; recovery is poor.
  • 5th degree Complete nerve transection; untreated recovery is not expected.

3

When during the day does growth hormone production peak?

2-3 hours into sleep (stage III or IV).

4

How long does it take for Wallerian degeneration to occur after complete nerve transaction?

3 days

5

What is the half-life ofT4?

7 days.

6

Which part of the pituitary gland is derived from Rathke's pouch?

Anterior pituitary.

7

In patients treated for thyroid cancer, posttherapy thyroglobulin levels are less useful in the presence of elevated'---_.

Antithyroglobulin antibodies.

8

What structures facilitate passage of CSF into the dural venous sinuses?

Arachnoid villi.

9

Which of these result in Wallerian degeneration?

Axonotmesis and neurotmesis.

10

What hormone is produced by the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid?

Calcitonin.

11

What are the three primary ways a cell reacts to a hormonal signal?

Changing its metabolite or protein; generating an electric current; contracting.

12

What produces CSF?

Choroid plexus.

13

The parasympathetic nervous system originates in the segntents of the spinal cord while the sympathetic nervous system originates in the segntents of the spinal cord.

Craniosacral; thoracolumbar.

14

Secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland results in decreased or increased urine volume?

Decreased.

15

Secretion of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland results in increased or decreased colloid production in the thyroid gland?

Decreased.

16

What hormone receptors are present in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiomas?

Dihydrotestosterone and testosterone.

17

What time of day does cortisol production peak?

Early morning.

18

How many cervical spinal nerves are there?

Eight.

19

Which thyroid blood test correlates best with the metabolic state of the patient?

Free thyroxine index (FT41).

20

When is clock-dependent alerting most active?

In the afternoon.

21

What effect does PTH have on urine phosphorus?

Increases urine phosphorus excretion.

22

Which hormone normally regulates protein synthesis and breakdown?

Insulin.

23

What is "clock-dependent alerting"?

Internal signal from the biological clock that opposes the tendency to fall asleep.

24

What are the two major classes of hormone receptors?

Membrane receptors, binding peptides and catecholamines, and nuclear receptors, binding small molecules that can diffuse across a cell membrane.

25

What are the three types of nerve injury?

Neuropraxia, axonotmesis, and neurotmesis.

26

Which of these has a more rapid rate ofWallerian degeneration?

Neurotmesis.

27

Steroid hormones and thyroid hormones use which type of receptor?

Nuclear.

28

What will happen to reverse T3 and T3 levels during fasting, systemic illness, and acute psychiatric illness?

Reverse T3 levels will increase and T3 levels will decrease.

29

What happens to PTH levels as people age?

Rise.

30

What is the most common cause of diabetes insipidus?

so% of cases are idiopathic.