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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (71):
1

How does Km relate to affinity

inversely related

2

What is the formula for half life?

0.7Vd/CL

3

Reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis with P450- what kind of metabolism

Phase I

4

Glucoronidation, Acetylation, sulfation- what kind of metabolism

Phase II

5

What type of metabolism is defective in geriactric patients?

phase I

6

Efficacy vs potency

Efficacy- maximal effect a drug can produce
potency- amount of drug needed for a given effect

7

What type of receptor is a nicotinic Ach receptor?

ligand-gated Na/K channel

8

What type of receptor is a muscarinic ACh receptor?

GPCR

9

What type of neurotransmitter is released on postsynaptic, 2nd neuron for parasymp?

ACh M

10

What type of neurotransmitter is released on postsynaptic, 2nd neuron for sympathetic, sweat glands?

AChM

11

What type of neurotransmitter is released on postsynaptic, 2nd neuron for sympathetic, cardiac?

NEab

12

What type of neurotransmitter is released on postsynaptic skeletal muscle?

AChN

13

What type of neurotransmitter is released on postsynaptic, 2nd neuron for sympathetic, renal vasculature and smooth muscle?

D

14

What type of neurotransmitter is released on adrenal medulla?

ACh N

15

What are the two types of nicotinic receptors? where are they found?

NN- autonomic ganglia
NM- NMJ

16

What autonomic receptors are Gi (3)

M2, a2, D2

17

What autonomic receptors are Gq (5)

H1, a1, V1, M1, M3

18

What does dopamine do to renal vascular smooth muscle?

relaxes

19

What muscarinic/adrenergic receptors are found on the heart? what is the effect?

M2
decr heart rate and atrial contractility
B1/B2
incr HR, contractility

20

What receptors affect pupillary contraction?

a1- contraction of dilator muscles (mydriasis)
M3- pupillary sphincter muscle contraction (Miosis)

21

Where are the vasopressin receptors found?

V1- vascular smooth muscle contraction
V2- incr H2O permeability and reabsorption of kidneys

22

What adrenergic receptor promotes renin release?

B2

23

What adrenergic receptor affects aqueous humour production?

B2- incr production

24

What adrenergic receptors are found on the uterus?

B2- decr tone
a1- incr contraction

25

What receptors are on vascular smooth muscle?

a1- contraction
V1- contraction

26

Bethanechol

direct cholinomimetic agonist
ileus and urinary retenthion

27

Pilocarpine

direct cholinomimetic agonist
glaucoma, pupillary constriction, relief intraoc pressure

28

Methacholine

direct cholinomimetic agonist
asthma challenge test

29

Neostigmine

anticholinesterase
long-acting, quarternary (not lipid sol)
reversal NMJ blockade, myasthenia gravis, postop ileus, urinary retention

30

Pyridostigmine

anticholinesterase
Myasthenia gravis
doesnt penetrate CNS

31

Donepezil

anticholinesterase
Alzheimers (incr ACh)
lipid sol- ternary amine

32

Edrophonium

anticholinesterase
short acting
used to diagnose myasthenia gravis

33

What is the antidote for organophosphate poisoning?

atropine- competitive inhib (does not prevent muscle paralysis- nicotinic)
praloxidime- needs to be given early

34

Diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, bradychardia, lacrimation, sweating, salivation, muscle and CNS excitation

organophosphate poisoning
irreversibly inhibits AChE

35

Atropine

muscarinic antagonist (treats bradychardia and opthalmic)

36

Benzotropine

muscarinic antagonist
used to treat parkinson, acts on CNS

37

Scopolamine

muscarininc antag
motion sickness

38

Ipratropium

muscarinic antag
respiratory aplications

39

oxybutynin

muscarinic antag
decr urgency, bladder spasm

40

darifenacin

muscarinic antag
decr urgency, bladder spasm

41

Glycopyrrolate

musarinic antag
reduce airway secretion, drooling, peptic ulcer

42

What is the toxicity of atropine?

Hot as a hare
dry as a bone
Red as a beet
Blind as a bat
Mad as a hatter

43

Epinephrine

Can stim all 4, depends on dose
Low dose: b>a
Med does: b1, b2, a1
high dose: a1
anaphlaxis

44

Norepinephrine

a1, a2, b1 (no b2)
treats hypotension

45

Dobutamine

B1>B2, a
used to treat heart failure, stress test

46

Phenylephrine

a1>a2
hypotension, decongestion, mydriasis

47

Albuterol

B2>b1
asthma

48

Salmeterol

B2>b1
asthma- long acting

49

Terbutaline

b2>b1
prevent uterine contractions

50

isoproterenol

b1=b2

51

Norepinephrine vs isoproterenol effect on HR, BP

NE: incr BP, reflex bradycardia
Iso: decr BP, incr PP, incr BP

52

Clonidine

a2 agnoist
hypertensive urgency

53

a-methyldopa

a2 agnoist
hypertension in pregnancy

54

phenoxybenzamine

a blocker (irreversible)
Pheo-preop

55

phentolamine

a blocker (reversible)
give to patients on MAO inh

56

Prazosin

a1 selective blocker (all ending osin)
BPH, PTSD, hypertension

57

Mirtazapine

a2-selective blocker
depression

58

What are the toxicities of mirtazapine

sedation, incr serum cholesterol, incr appetite

59

What effect does epinephrine have on BP before and after a block?

before- incr BP
after- decr BP

60

carvedilol

nonselective a and b antag

61

labetalol

nonselective a and b antag

62

nebivolol

b1 blockade of heart
b3 stim- activate NO synthase vasculature

63

acebutolol

b1 selective, partial agonist

64

atenolol

b1 selective antag

65

pindolol

nonselective b, partial agonist

66

propanolol

nonselective b antagonist

67

What b blockers decr mortality after MI?

metoprolol, carvedilol, bisoprolol

68

betaxolol

b1 selective antag

69

What b blockers are class II antiarrythmics?

metoprolol, esmolol

70

What b blockers are used to treat glaucoma

timolol (decr aq hum)

71

What population should avoid b blockers?

cocaine users (unopposed a agonist)