Flashcards in Repro Deck (55):
what types of estrogen are produced by the ovary, placenta, and adipose tissue?
Ovary: 17b estradiol
Adipose tissue: estrone
Compare the potency of types of estrogen
Describe the roles of the theca and granulosa cells in production of estrogen
Theca: converts cholesterol to andostrenedione with desmolase
granulosa: converts andtrostene dione to estrogen with aromatase
What are progesterone levels expected to be during ovulation?
What are the roles of estrogen and progesterone in the growth of endometrium?
Estrogen- stimulates proliferation
Progesterone- maintains endometrium
What are the phases of the menstrual cycle? How long are they?
Follicular=proliferative, varies in length
on what day after fertilization does implantation occur?
What are the roles of different hormones in lactation?
Decr progesterone and estrogen- disinhibit lactation
Prolactin: induces and maintains lactation
oxytocin- assists in milk letdown
What hormonal change is specific to menopause?
Where are the testosterones produced? Compare potency
DHT and testost- testis
inhibits 5a-reductase, conversion of testosterone to DHT
What converts testosterone to estrogen in males? where?
testis and adipose tissue
How do you distinguish between primary hypogonadism vs hypogonadotropic hypogonadism?
LH incr in primary, decr in HH
What is the result of excess androgen exposure to a female?
female psuedohermphrodite- ovaries present but genitalia virlized or ambiguous
What is the result of androgenic insensitivity in males?
male psuedohermphrodite- testes present, external genitalia female or ambiguous
What does aromatase deficiency cause?
inability to synthesize estrogen from androgen
-masculinization of female
-virilization of mom
What cells are involved to make complete vs partial mole
Complete: enucleate egg+ single sperm
partial: egg+ 2 sperm
Describe hCG levels for partial and complete mole
greatly increased in complete; increased but not as much in partial
Describe HELLP syndrome
Elevated Liver enzymes
What is given to prevent seizure in preeclampsia
What is the time frame for preeclampsia?
20th week of gestation to 6th week postpartum
(<20wks suggests preeclampsia)
Define levels for polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios
What do E6 and E7 do?
E6: inhibits p53
E7: inhibits RB supressor
Treatment of endometritis
gentamicin and clindamicin
What determines prognosis of endometrial carcinoma?
level of myometrial invasion
What are estrogen, testosterone, FSH, LH, SHBG levels in PCOS
estrogen incr, LH incr, FSH incr (LH:FSH 3:1), testosterone incr, incr SHBG
What cells are defective in PCOS
Describe Brenner tumor
looks like bladder, coffee bean nuclei
What is Meigs syndrome
ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax
What is a kruckenberg tumor?
metastasis of GI tumor to ovaries; signet cell
What is the most common ovarian neoplasm in adolescents
What ovarian tumours are associated with BRCA
What is the most common ovarian neoplasm
What are characteristic findings of serous cystadenocarcinoma
What ovarian tumor is associated with Call-Exner bodies
granulosa cell tumor
(resembles primordial follicles)
Where do choriocarcinomas often spread? how?
to lung, hematogenously
Describe histological findings of dysgerminoma
sheets of uniform fried egg cells
What type of cells produce cohroicarcinoma?
What is sarcoma botyroides? What marker and population do you expect
spindle shaped tumors, desmin +, girls <4
What histologic feature is associated with comedocarcinoma? What is it a subtype of?
central, caseous necrosis, subtype of DCIS
Where is an intraductal papilloma usually located? how does it present?
serous or bloody nipple discharge
What is a phyllodes tumor?
Benign, large bulky mass, leaf-like projections
Describe histology of Paget cells
large cells in epidermis with clear halo, underlying DCIS
What breast tumor is associated with microcalcifications
What breast cancer type presents with flesh, cellular, lymphcytic infiltrate?
What pathogen most often causes acute mastitis?
What is cryptorchidsm?
What veins are dilated in varicocele?
What side is most common for a varicocele?
What lobe is most likely affected by prostatic adeoncarcinoma?
What is the most common testicular cancer in older men?
What testicular tumor is associated with Reinke crystals?
Leydig cell tumor
Testicular tumor presents with malignant, hemorrhagic mass with necrosis; often glandular/papillary morphology
What testicular tumor is associated with schiller-duval bodies?