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Flashcards in Repro Deck (55):
1

what types of estrogen are produced by the ovary, placenta, and adipose tissue?

Ovary: 17b estradiol
Placenta: estriol
Adipose tissue: estrone

2

Compare the potency of types of estrogen

estradiol>estrone>estriol

3

Describe the roles of the theca and granulosa cells in production of estrogen

Theca: converts cholesterol to andostrenedione with desmolase
granulosa: converts andtrostene dione to estrogen with aromatase

4

What are progesterone levels expected to be during ovulation?

Low

5

What are the roles of estrogen and progesterone in the growth of endometrium?

Estrogen- stimulates proliferation
Progesterone- maintains endometrium

6

What are the phases of the menstrual cycle? How long are they?

Follicular=proliferative, varies in length
luteal=secretory; 14d

7

on what day after fertilization does implantation occur?

6d

8

What are the roles of different hormones in lactation?

Decr progesterone and estrogen- disinhibit lactation
Prolactin: induces and maintains lactation
oxytocin- assists in milk letdown

9

What hormonal change is specific to menopause?

Incr FSH

10

Where are the testosterones produced? Compare potency

DHT and testost- testis
androstenedione- adrenal
DHT>testosterone>androstenedione

11

Finasteride

inhibits 5a-reductase, conversion of testosterone to DHT

12

What converts testosterone to estrogen in males? where?

P450 aromatase
testis and adipose tissue

13

How do you distinguish between primary hypogonadism vs hypogonadotropic hypogonadism?

LH incr in primary, decr in HH

14

What is the result of excess androgen exposure to a female?

female psuedohermphrodite- ovaries present but genitalia virlized or ambiguous

15

What is the result of androgenic insensitivity in males?

male psuedohermphrodite- testes present, external genitalia female or ambiguous

16

What does aromatase deficiency cause?

inability to synthesize estrogen from androgen
-masculinization of female
-virilization of mom

17

What cells are involved to make complete vs partial mole

Complete: enucleate egg+ single sperm
partial: egg+ 2 sperm

18

Describe hCG levels for partial and complete mole

greatly increased in complete; increased but not as much in partial

19

Describe HELLP syndrome

Hemolysis
Elevated Liver enzymes
Low Platelets

20

What is given to prevent seizure in preeclampsia

Mg sulfate

21

What is the time frame for preeclampsia?

20th week of gestation to 6th week postpartum
(<20wks suggests preeclampsia)

22

Define levels for polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios

polyhydramnios: >1.5-2L
oligohydramnios: <0.5L

23

What do E6 and E7 do?

E6: inhibits p53
E7: inhibits RB supressor

24

Treatment of endometritis

gentamicin and clindamicin

25

What determines prognosis of endometrial carcinoma?

level of myometrial invasion

26

What are estrogen, testosterone, FSH, LH, SHBG levels in PCOS

estrogen incr, LH incr, FSH incr (LH:FSH 3:1), testosterone incr, incr SHBG

27

What cells are defective in PCOS

theca cells

28

Describe Brenner tumor

looks like bladder, coffee bean nuclei

29

What is Meigs syndrome

ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax

30

What is a kruckenberg tumor?

metastasis of GI tumor to ovaries; signet cell

31

What is the most common ovarian neoplasm in adolescents

dysgerminoma

32

What ovarian tumours are associated with BRCA

serous cystadenocarcinoma

33

What is the most common ovarian neoplasm

serous cystadenocarcinoma

34

What are characteristic findings of serous cystadenocarcinoma

psammoma bodies
often bilateral

35

What ovarian tumor is associated with Call-Exner bodies

granulosa cell tumor
(resembles primordial follicles)

36

Where do choriocarcinomas often spread? how?

to lung, hematogenously

37

Describe histological findings of dysgerminoma

sheets of uniform fried egg cells

38

What type of cells produce cohroicarcinoma?

trophoblastic tissue

39

What is sarcoma botyroides? What marker and population do you expect

spindle shaped tumors, desmin +, girls <4

40

What histologic feature is associated with comedocarcinoma? What is it a subtype of?

central, caseous necrosis, subtype of DCIS

41

Where is an intraductal papilloma usually located? how does it present?

beneath areola
serous or bloody nipple discharge

42

What is a phyllodes tumor?

Benign, large bulky mass, leaf-like projections

43

Describe histology of Paget cells

large cells in epidermis with clear halo, underlying DCIS

44

What breast tumor is associated with microcalcifications

DCIS

45

What breast cancer type presents with flesh, cellular, lymphcytic infiltrate?

Medullary

46

What pathogen most often causes acute mastitis?

s. aureus

47

What is cryptorchidsm?

undescended testis

48

What veins are dilated in varicocele?

pampiniform plexus

49

What side is most common for a varicocele?

Left side

50

What lobe is most likely affected by prostatic adeoncarcinoma?

posterior lobe

51

What is the most common testicular cancer in older men?

lymphoma (metastasizes)

52

What testicular tumor is associated with Reinke crystals?

Leydig cell tumor

53

Testicular tumor presents with malignant, hemorrhagic mass with necrosis; often glandular/papillary morphology

embryonal carcinoma

54

What testicular tumor is associated with schiller-duval bodies?

yolk-sac tumor

55

What testicular tumor is associated with a "fried egg" appearance and increased placental ALP

seminoma