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Flashcards in Pharmacology for Physios Deck (20):
1

What is involved in taking drugs orally?

- Tablet/capsule swallowed by patient
- Delayed effect (absorbed by gut)
- Timing depends on nursing staff
- Systemic effects

2

What are sublingual drugs?

Dissolved under the tongue, e.g. anti-emetic

3

What are the effects of taking drugs using a central line?

- Rapid distribution through blood supply
- Systemic effects
- Unless via PCA (button) dependent on nursing staff

4

What are the features of patient controlled analgesia (PCA)?

- Usually via central line
- Unlimited patient use as required (button)
- Block out period prevents overdose
- Usage monitored daily by APS
- Systemic effects
- E.g. morphine

5

What are the features of epidural/spinal analgesia or anaesthesia?

- Can mostly selectively block sensory pain pathways (preserving motor)
- Very effective pain control if sited effectively
- Require daily monitoring by APS
- Risks of damage around spinal cord

6

What are the effects of local anaesthetic?

Pain buster balls
- Gradual drainage of anaesthetic around wound site
- Minimal systemic effects
- Patient carries it with them

7

What are analgesics?

- Pain relief
- Commonly through PCA (fentanyl, morphine)
- Oral: Paracetamol, codeine, endone, oxycontin, aspirin

8

How can analgesics affect respiration?

They can potentially reduce respiratory drive (side effect)

9

What are inotropes?

- Increase BP and/or contractility of heart
- Common following cardiac surgery or severe sepsis (whole body suffering from infection, very low BP)

10

How are inotropes administered?

Central line e.g. noradrenaline, adrenaline, dobutamine

11

What are anti-hypertensives?

- Reduce BP
- Long-term or short-term
- Central line or oral
- E.g. captopril, metprolol

12

What should be considered when administering anti-hypertensives?

The patient's normal blood pressure - 120/70 may feel low to a patient who is normally hypertensive

13

What are anti-arrythmics?

- Stabilise heart muscle
- Particularly used for atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter
- Oral & IV e.g. amiodarone

14

How do anti-arrythmics work?

Affect sodium & potassium channels causing increased duration of cardiac action potential

15

What are bronchodilators?

- Relax smooth muscle of airways
- Asthma, COPD
- Short acting vs long acting
- MDI (metered dose inhalers aka puffer) vs oral
- E.g. salbutamol (ventolin)

16

What are mucolytics?

- Break down sputum through enzymatic destruction of protein
- CF, bronchiectasis, end of life
- Oral (tablet/liquid) or inhaled
- E.g. mucomyst

17

What are steroids?

- Naturally occurring hormones (adrenal gland)
- Corticosteroids: Anti-inflammatory properties
- Inhaled, oral (tablet/liquid) or IV
- E.g. flixotide

18

What are diuretics?

- Increase urine production
- Fluid overloaded (e.g. APO, kidney failure)
- Heart failure
- Oral, IV or IM (intramuscular)
- E.g. frusemide

19

What are anti-coagulants?

- Blood thinners
- Reduce risk of DVT, PE, stroke, AMI
- Need to monitor clotting levels (INR, PTT)
- Often long term
- Oral or IV
- E.g. warfarin, aspirin

20

What are anti-emetics?

- Reduce nausea & vomiting
- Fast acting
- Routinely prescribed as required following GI surgery
- Sublingual, IV or IM
- E.g. maxolon