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Flashcards in Pharmacology History Deck (16)
1

Why were the Smith and Ebres papyruses of significance?

Contained recipes for precriptions

2

When did the first vaccination for smallpox occur?

In India around 600BC

3

What did Paracelsus, the Swiss surgeon who denounced the notion of humors, popularize?

The use of tinctures and extracts

4

William Harvey, in 1628, was the first to _______

describe passage of blood through arteries and veins due to heart beat

5

What was significant about the idea of an "active principle"

first time preparations thought of as a drug rather than magic with dose affecting magnitude of effect

6

What was the significance of Claude Bernard's experiments with curare?

Found that it acted at neuromuscular junction - one of first drug mechanisms described

7

Who is JJ Abel?

The father of American psychology :)

8

John Langley discovered neurotransmission in the _______________ and developed the notion that drugs bound to a _______________

autonomic nervous system, receptive substance

9

Besides being the father of chemotherapy, what term did Paul Ehrlich coin?

Receptor!

10

In 1965, the first receptor ________ drug was produced

antagonist

11

An agonist ______ receptor while an antagonist ________ receptor

stimulates, blocks

12

Describe the three transduction mechanisms that an agonist employs

1) enzyme activation/inhibition
2) ion channel modulation
3) DNA transcription

13

An antagonist ______ receptor via blockage of ___________

blocks, agonists

14

Digitalis, a drug used in heart failure, is an inotrope in that it functions to _____________________________

alter force or energy of muscular contractions

15

What are negative side effects of digitalis?

1) blocks AV node --> can cause sinus bradycardia, atrial arrhythmias or first degree block
2) disturbs red/green color vision, points of light exhibit halos

16

Describe Digitalis action on the Na+/K+ ATPase (5 steps)

1) binds to Na+/K+ ATPase and inhibits
2) Increases cellular Na+
3) Increased cellular Na+ inhibits Na+/Ca++ exchange
4) Increases cellular Ca++
5) Increases force of contraction