Flashcards in Week 5 Deck (211)
Pyrimidine pathway begins with what?
glutamine, CO2, 2 ATP
Describe what occurs in Complex III
contains cavern, electrons picked up by cytochrome C and taken to IV, pumps 4 protons to intermembrane space
Cytochromes contain _____ cofactors that can be reduced or oxidized
How is the X chromosome inactivated?
packaged into transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin. Heterochromatin coats inactive X DNA and prevents its transcriptional expression --> forms Barr body. Xist gene encodes RNA responsible for mediating this silencing.
When non-equal concentrations are known, which equation should be used for delta G?
Delta G = Delta G naught + RTln[y]/[x]
Purine biosynthesis starts with what molecule?
Describe the enrgy required to convert oxaloacetate to citrate
In sperm, all imprints are erased and rewritten with _______ pattern; in eggs, rewritten with _______ pattern; even in genes that come from opposite sex parent
Describe how acetylcholine promotes the synthesis of NO
Acetylcholine binds to GPCR on endothelial cell --> IP3 generated --> increases Ca++ --> activates NO synthase --> NO produced from arginine
Isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl coA - both steps are promoted by this cofactor
What is the wobble base on tRNA?
3rd position in codon not totally required to match by all tRNAs (sometimes you get an I matching)
In Huntington's Disease, there is greater expansion in _______ parent transmission than in ______
male, female (gametogenesis)
_________ genes are susceptibility targets for numerous human pathologies such as Angelman and Prader WIlli Syndrome
A positive feedback mechanism that results in ______________ would be an NZ that is activated by a signaling molecule but is then further stimulated by products that bind back to the NZ/signal complex and further stimulate it.
Nucleoside monophosphate kinases convert ATP and NDP to
ADP and NDP
What are the three tissues most dependent on oxidative phosphorylation?
heart, skeletal muscle, central nervous system
TCA cycle enzymes are found in what part of the mitochondria?
Describe how the COX2 pathway can result in neoplasia (4 factors)
promotes tumor angiogenesis, induces tumor cell growth, inhibits apoptosis, dec immunosurveillance
Describe the four step process of tRNA binding
1) aminoacyl tRNA binds to vacant "A" site
2) a new peptide bond is formed at "P" site
3) mRNA moves 3 nucleotide positions through ribosomal subunit to E site
4) spent tRNA is ejected and the ribosome is reset
When a hormone secreted from a cell travels through the blood stream and binds to receptor on target cell, what signaling system is occurring? (encounter lots of cells during travel)
Describe the age and conflict of the child in the oral stage.
birth-1 yr, primary conflict - weaning, fixation can lead to excess reliance and vulnerability to overconsumption of food or alcohol. Frustrations can lead to pessimism, envy and aggression.
__________ is usually the first AUG from 5' cap site
During pyrimidine synthesis, _____ is added halfway through the cycle to produce orotidine (OMP)
PRPP, catalyzed by orotic acid transferase
DNA methyltransferases can be indirectly repressed by _________
Modified ________ ensure that a differentiated cell stays differentiated
Describe how NO causes rapid relaxation of smooth muscle cell
NO binds to guanylyl cyclase and converts GTP to cyclic GMP which causes rapid relaxation
How do ROCK and PKC activation inhibit MLCP activity?
ROCK phosphorylates MYPt1 inhibitory protein and PKC phosphorylates CPI-17 inhibitory protein, which leads to inactivation of MLCP
How do macrolides (such as erythromycin) inhibit protein synthesis?
prevent the Movement of ribosomes(translocation)
Non-specific NSAIDS also block the inducible COX2 pathway. Normally, the COX2 pathway can lead to ________ and _______ via PGE2. Why are these dangerous?