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Flashcards in Pharmacology Pearls Deck (530):
1

Bactericidal Antibiotics

Very Finely Proficient at Murder!

Vancomycin Fluroquinolones Penicillins Aminoglycosides Metronidazole

2

Bacteriostatic Antibiotics

ECSTaTiC with bacteriostatics!

Erythromycin
Clindamycin
Sulfamethoxazole
Trimethoprim
Tetracycline
Chloramphenicol

3

Narrow Spectrum Penicillins.

SE: Hypersensitivity

Penicillin G

4

Penicillinase-resistant penicillins

SE: Interstitial Nephritis

Methicillin *

5

Extended-spectrum Penicillins

SE: Pseudomembranous Colitis

Ampicillin

6

Antipseudomonal Penicillin

SE: Hypertension, hypervolemia, bleeding

Ticarcillin

7

Oral Penicillin

Penicillin V

8

IV Penicillin

Penicillin G

9

Between Ampicillin and Amoxicillin which has greater oral bioavailability?

AMPed up penicillin (Ampicillin)

greater Oral bioavailability (amOxcicillin)

10

Amoxicillin enterococci coverage

Amoxicillin HELPS kill Enterococci

Haemophilus influenzae
Escherichia Coli
Listeria monocytogenes
Proteus mirabilis
Salmonella spp
Enterococci

11

Takes Care of Pseudomonas

TCP: Ticarcillin Carbenicillin Piperacillin

12

1st generation Cephalosporin
high bone penetration
surgical prophylaxis
greatest Gram + coverage

SE: Hypersensitivity reaction

Cefazolin

13

2nd generation Cephalosporin
added gram negative coverage

SE: Disulfiram reaction

Cefamandole

14

3rd generation Cephalosporin
Pseudomonas coverage

SE: Disulfiram reaction

Cefoperazone

15

Most efficacious Cephalosporin against Pseudomonas Aeroginosa

Ceftazidime

16

4th generation Cephalosporin
broad spectrum activity G+/-

Cefepime

17

Cephalosporin with the best penetration of the BBB

Ceftriaxone

18

1st generation Cephalosporin Microbe Coverage

PEKpek

Proteus
E. Coli
Klebsiella

19

1st generation Cephalosporins

FADer, help me FAZ my Pharmacology boards!

CeFADroxil ceFAZolin cePHalothin cePHapirin cePHradine cePHalexin

20

2nd generation microbe coverage

PEKpek of HENS:

Proteus mirabilis
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae

Haemophillus influenzae
Enterobacter aerogenes
Neiserria spp
Serratia marcescens

21

2nd generation cephalosporins

in a FAMily gathering you can see your FOXy cousin wearing a FUR coat and drinking TEA.

FAC! LORA the PROfessional AZhOLE is still on the FONe

ceFAMandole, ceFOXitin, ceFURoxime, cefoTEtan, ceFAClor, LORAcarbef, cefPROzil, cefmetAZOLE, ceFONicid

22

Cephalosporins with Disulfiram Reaction

Cefamandole
Cefmetazole
Cefotetan
Cefoperazone

23

3rd generation Cephalosporins

Fenge PO ng PERA to FIX my TTTTTV! ceFEtamet, cefPOdoxin, cefoPERAzone, ceFIXime, cefTriaxone, cefTazidime, cefoTaxime, cefTizoxime, cefTibuten

24

Anti-pseudomonal Cephalosporins

Cefoperazone
Ceftazidime
Cefipime

25

Protein synthesis inhibitors that binds to 50s subunit

SE: aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome

Chloramphenicol

26

Protein synthesis inhibitors that binds to 30s subunit

SE: tooth enamel discoloration, photosensitivity

Tetracycline

27

Protein synthesis inhibitors that binds to 50s subunit
DOC for penicillin-allergic patients

SE: Diarrhea, cholestatic jaundice

Macrolide (Erythromycin)

28

Protein synthesis inhibitors that binds to 50s subunit
Highest volume of distribution
single dose administration

Azithromycin

29

Protein synthesis inhibitors that binds to 50s subunit
anaerobic coverage

SE: Pseudomembranous Colitis

Clindamycin

30

Protein synthesis inhibitors that binds to 50s subunit, next line after Vancomycin resistance

Linezolid

31

Protein synthesis inhibitors that affect the 30s subunit

Tetracycline & Aminoglycoside

32

Protein synthesis inhibitors that affect the 50s subunit

Streptogrammin, Erythromycin (Macrolide), Linezolid

33

Treatment for anaerobic infections ABOVE the diaphragm

Clindamycin

34

Treatment for anaerobic infections BELOW the diaphragm

Metronidazole

35

Prototype aminoglycoside, bactericidal, which binds to the 30s subunit

SE: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity

Gentamycin

36

Bactericidal antibiotic which binds to the 30s subunit, for ocular infection treatment

Tobramycin

37

Bactericidal antibiotic which binds to the 30s subunit, an adjunct to Tuberculosis treatment

Streptomycin

38

Bactericidal antibiotic which binds to the 30s subunit, a treatment to drug-resistant gonorrhea

Aminoglycoside - Streptomycin

39

Bactericidal antibiotic which binds to the 30s subunit, widest spectrum of activity, pseudomonas coverage, narrow therapeutic window

Amikacin

40

Bactericidal antibiotic which binds to the 30s subunit, treatment for hepatic encephalopathy

Neomycin

41

Aminoglycoside of choice for anaerobic infections

None, they require O2 for transport thus won't work under anaerobic conditions

42

Side effects of Aminoglycosides

NOT! Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, teratogenic

43

This drug blocks dihydropteroate synthase

Sulfamethoxazole

44

Blocks dihydrofolate reductase

Trimethoprim & Methotrexate

45

Sequential blockade in folate synthesis, bactericidal together, for UTI SE: Hypersensitivity (SJS, TEN), kernicterus, hemolysis in patients with G6PD

TMP-SMX

46

Treatment for Burn infections

Sulfadiazine

47

2nd generation quinoline, treatment for UTI and GIT infections SE: Tendinitis

Ciprofloxacin

48

3rd generation quinolone which could be used as treatment for pulmonary infections

Levofloxacin

49

4th generation quinoline, broad spectrum of activity, anaerobic coverage, treatment for ocular infections

Moxifloxacin

50

4th generation quinolone SE: Diabetes mellitus

Gatifloxacin

51

Side effect of Fluroquinolones thus avoid giving to pediatric patients

FluroquinoLONES hurt attachments of your BONES (cartilage damage)

52

Anti-mycobacterial agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis SE: Neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, sideroblastic anemia, drug induced Lupus, Potent cyp450 inhibitor

Isoniazid

53

Anti-mycobacterial drug that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, rapidly develops resistance SE: red orange urine, hepatotoxicity

Rifampicin

54

Anti-mycobacterial that inhibits arabinogalactan synthesis SE: Visual dysfunction (Retrobulbar neuritis, color blindness)

Ethambutol

55

Anti-mycobacterial drug that is generally bacteriostatic but is bactericidal on actively dividing MTB SE: Hyperuricemia, greatest effect on hepatotoxicity

Pyrazinamide

56

Anti-mycobacterial drug which binds to the 30s subunit of the ribosome SE: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity

Streptomycin

57

Hepatotoxic TB Drugs

Isoniazid < Rifampin < Pyrazinamide

58

Most active drug against M. Leprae, Inhibits Folate synthesis SE: Methemoglobinemia, G6PD

Dapsone

59

Drug for M. Leprae that Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase SE: Red-orange urine, delays onset of Dapsone resistance

Rifampicin

60

Drug for M. Leprae that is a Phenazine dye which binds to guanine bases SE: Skin discoloration

Clofazimine

61

Anti-microbial agents that is the silver bullet against gram negative bacteria, no gram positive coverage, with PSEUDO COVERAGE

Aztreonam

62

Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors

Clavulanic Acid

63

Treatment for MRSA SE: Red man syndrome

Vancomycin

64

Anti-microbial drug of last resort, broad spectrum of activity SE: CNS Toxicity

Meropenem

65

Anti-microbial with anaerobic, and antiprotozoal coverage, treatment for pseudomembranous colitis SE: Disulfiram reaction, metallic taste, neurotoxicity

Metronidazole

66

Anti-microbial treatment for UTI SE: Pulmonary Fibrosis

Nitrofurantoin

67

Anti-microbial drugs of Last Resort

I AM your Last Shot at Victory: Imipenem, Amikacin, Meropenem, Linezolid, Streptogramins, Vancomycin

68

Most efficacious anti-fungal drug, forms artificial pores

SE: Nephrotoxicity (RTA, ATN)

Amphotericin B

69

Topical Treatment of dermatophytosis and candidiasis

SE: Gynecomastia and a CYP450 inhibitor

Ketoconazole

70

Prophylaxis and treatment of candidiasis and cryptococcus

Fluconazole

71

Interferes with fungal microtubules

SE: Potent CYP450 inducer

Griseofulvin

72

Treatment fo candidiasis (oropharyngeal, esophageal, vaginal), swish and swallow of suppository preparations

Nystatin

73

Treatment of HSV and VZV, requires activation by viral thymidine kinase

SE: Crystalluria

Acyclovir

74

Treatment of CMV, requires activation by viral thymidine kinase

Gangciclovir

75

Treatment of HSV, VZV, CMV. Does NOT require thymidine kinase activation

Foscarnet

76

Prevents viral uncoating, influenza A coverage

SE: cerebellar dysfunction, livedo reticularis

Amantadine

77

Neuraminidase inhibitor
DOC for Influenza

Oseltamivir

78

Hepatitis B infection treatment

Lamivudine

79

Hepatitis C infection and RSV infection

Ribavirin

80

Amantadine blocks ___ and ___ causes problems with the ___.

Influenza A, rubellA, cerebellA

81

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)
requires phosphorylation
primary drug for HIV
prevents vertical transmission of HIV

SE: Lactic Acidosis

Zidovudine (AZT)

82

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), No phosphorylation required

Delavirdine

83

Indinavir

Protease inhibitor SE: Fat redistribution syndrome, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance

84

Fusion inhibitor which binds to the gp41 subunit

Enfuvirtide *

85

Binding inhibitor, CCR5 antagonist

Maravirol

86

Nonnucleoside reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

Never Ever Deliver Nucleosides: Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Delavirdine

87

Protease Inhibitors

All protease inhibitors end with -navir. NAVIR every TEASE a PROTEASE

88

Primary drug for malaria. Prevents heme polymerization into hemozoin SE: Retinal Damage, hearing loss

Chloroquine

89

Chloroquine-resistance
severe malaria
DOC for pregnant patients with malaria

SE: Hypoglycemia, Blackwater fever, Cinchonism

Quinine

90

Drug to eradicate hyponozoites of P. Vivax and Ovale

Primaquine

91

Chemoprophylaxis (Chloroquine-resistant areas)

Mefloquine, Malarone

92

Chemoprophylaxis (Multi-drug resistant Malaria drug areas)

Doxycycline

93

DOC for Malaria in the the Philippines (P. Falciparum)

Co-artem

94

Treatment for Asymptomatic cyst carries of E. Histolytica

Diloxanide Furoate

95

Treatment for amebic dysentery, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis

Metronidazole

96

Treatment for Cryptosporidium parvum infection

Nitaxoxanide

97

Treatment for Toxoplasmosis

Pyrimethamine Sulfadiazine

98

Treatment for African sleeping sickness

Suramin & Melosoprol

99

Treatment for Chagas diase

Nifurtomix

100

Treatment for Leishmaniasis

Stibogluconate

101

Inhibits helmithic microtubules, ovicidal

Mebendazole

102

Inhibits helmithic microtubules, ovicidal, larvicidal, DOC for hydatid disease (echinococcus)

Albendazole

103

DOC for Filaria and Loa Loa

SE: Filarial Fever

DEC

104

DOC for Strongyloides and Onchocerca

SE: Mazotti reaction

Ivermectin

105

DOC for enterobius Vermicularis

Pyrantel Palmoate (Combantrin)

106

DOC for Trichinosis

Thiabendazole

107

DOC for Trematodes and Cestodes EXCEPT Echinococcus

Praziquantel

108

Back up drug for Praziquantel

Niclosamide

109

Sedative hypnotic drug, acute anxiety attacks, anesthesia induction, preoperative sedation

Midazolam

110

Seizure disorders (Status epilepticus), alcohol withdrawal, Tranquilizer

Diazepine

111

Date rape drug

Flunitrazepam

112

Antidote to benzodiazepine overdose

Flumanezil

113

Anesthesia induction, Lethal unjection, truth serum

Thiopental

114

Seizure disorders in children, SE: Precipitates porphyria, potent inducer of CYP450

Phenobarbital

115

Gaba receptor effects which increases frequency of GABA channel opening? Duration?

FREnzodiazepines (Frequency), BarbiDURATes (Duration)

116

Abnormal sleep pattern resulting from benzodiazepine use

Decreased REM Sleep

117

Which benzodiazepine has the longest half-life?

Chlordiazepoxide (36-200 hour halflife)

118

Drugs considered as date-rape drugs

Alcohol, Flunitrazepam, Gamma hydroxybutyrate

119

Shortest acting sedative hypnotic

Thiopental (TAYO agad)

120

Sleep disorder drugs

Zolpidem, Zalepion

121

Drug for always anxious people

BUSpirone for BUSy people

122

Sedative hypnotic poisoning symptoms

Hot Hot Hot DeCisioN: Hypothermia, hypotension, hypoactive bowel sounds, disinhibition, coma, nystagmus

123

Most frequently abused drug, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in overdose, delirium tremens in withdrawal

Ethanol

124

Prevention of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

125

Treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal

Diazepam

126

Wood Alcohol SE: Visual dysfunction due to formaldehyde accumulation

Methanol

127

Antifreeze SE: Nephrotoxicity, dye to oxalic acid accumulation

Ethylene Glycol

128

Alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor

Fomepizole

129

Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor

Disulfiram

130

Disulfiram reaction drugs

Clara took the Pre-Medical Test in the PM: Chlorpropamide, Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan, Procarbazine,), Metronidazole

131

Anti-serizure drug that is a potent CYP450 inducer SE: gingival hyperplasia, hirsutism, fetal hydantoin syndrome

Phenytoin

132

Potent CYP450 inducer, DOC for partial seizures and trigeminal neuralgia SE: Blood dyscracias

Carbamazepine

133

Potent CYP450 inhibitor, DOC for seizures in children and pregnant women SE: Teratogen (Porphyria)

Phenobarbitals

134

Potent CYP450 inhibitor, DOC for GTC, and myoclonic seizures SE: Teratogen (Spina Bifida)

Valproic Acid

135

DOC for absence seizures

Ethoxsuximide

136

DOC for status epilepticus

Diazepam

137

Treatment for neuropathic pain

Gabapentin

138

Anti-seizure drug which cayses SJS as its side effect

Lamutrigine

139

Summary Anti-seizure drugs DOC for GTC

Valproic acid, Phenytoin, carbamazepine

140

Summary Anti-seizure drugs DOC for Partial Seizure

Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Phenytoin

141

Summary Anti-seizure drugs DOC for Absence Seizures

Ethosuximide, Valproic Acid

142

Summary Anti-seizure drugs DOC for Myoclonic and Atypical Absence Syndromes

Valproic Acid

143

Summary Anti-seizure drugs DOC for Status Epilepticus

Lorazepam, Diazepam, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital

144

Highest MAC (lowest potency) SE: Euphoria

Nitrous oxide

145

Not clearly described MOA SE: Pulmonary irritant

Desflurane

146

Not clearly defined MOA, postoperative hepatitis, malignant hyperthermia

Halothane

147

Lowest MAC (highest potency) slowest induction and recovery

Methoxyflurane

148

Dissociative anesthesia, NMDA receptor blocker SE: Emergence Delirium

Ketamin

149

Anesthesia for patients with limited cardiopulmonary reserve SE: Adrenal suppression

Ethomidate

150

Prolonged sedation, Milk of magnesia SE: Hypotension

Propofol

151

How to distinguish local anesthetics if they are esters or amides?

esters one I (tetracaine, procaine, benzocaine); amides to ii (Bupivacaine, Ropivacaine, Lidocaine)

152

Which local anesthetics have the shortest and longest half-lives?

A PRO finishes the race fastest (Procaine 1-2 mins), at the end of the long ROPe (Ropivacaine 4.2 hours)

153

Why should we not inject Licodaine in to absecesses

won't work due to acidic environment

154

What is the toxic dose of Lidocaine

5mg/kg, 1% = 10mg/ml

155

Skeletal muscle relaxant that is a prototype non-depolarizine neuromuscular blocker se: orthostatic hypotension

Tetradotoxin

156

Skeletal muscle relaxant that undergoes Hoffman elimination SE: Bronchospasm, most frequently used nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker

Atracurium

157

Skeletal muscle relaxant that is used for lethal injection, strychnine poisoning

Pancuronium

158

Reversal agent for non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockage

neostigmine

159

Skeletal muscle relaxant that is the only depolarizing neuromuscular blocker SE: Malignant Hyperthermia, affected by pseducholinesterase activity

Succinylcholine

160

Treatment for Malignant Hyperthermia

Dandrolene

161

Drug of choice for Parkinson's disease

Levodopa + Carbidopa

162

Bromocriptine

Treatment of hyperprolactenemia SE: Erythromelalgia, pulmonary fibrosis

163

Entacapone

Adjnctive drug for wearing off phenomenon

164

Antiparkinsonism drug with antiviral properties, SE: Livedo reticularis, cerebellar ataxia

Amantadine

165

Improves tremor and rigidity but has no effect of bradykinesia, atropine like effects

Benztropine

166

Parkinson's disease symptoms

It's a TRAP: Tremor, Rigidity, Akinesia, Postural instability

167

Livedo reticularis causing drugs

A man reads FHM and GQ! Amantadine, Hydroxyurea, Minocycline, Gemcitabine, Quinidine

168

Prototype atypical antipsychotic drug SE: Corneal and lens deposits, failure of ejaculation

Chlorpromazine

169

Treatment of Floridly psychotic patients SE: Major EPS (Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome)

Haloperidol

170

DOC for suicidal and refractory schizophrenics SE: Agranulocytosis

Clozapine

171

2nd generation antipsychotic SE: Marked with gain, hyperglycemia

Olanzapine

172

2nd generation antipsychotic SE: Priaprism, hypnagogic hallucinations

Quetiapine

173

Anti-psychotic for schizophrenia in the youth SE: Marked prolactinemia

Risperidone

174

Drug for Mania SE: Nephrogenic DI, Teratogen (Ebstein's Anomaly)

Lithium

175

Features of Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome

FEVER! Fever, Encephalopathy, Vitals unstable, Elevated CPK, Rigidity

176

Tricyclic Antidepressant, Treatment of enuresis SE: Atropine-like effects, Cardiotoxicity

Imipramines

177

SSRI, First line for MDD SE: Erectile dysfunction, serotonin syndrome

Fluoxetine,

178

SNRI SE: Hypertension

Venlafaxine

179

Serotonin Antagonist SE: Priparism

Trazodone

180

Tetracyclic antidepressant, smoking cessation SE: Weight loss, priaprism, seizures

Bupropion

181

MAOi SE: Hypertensive crisis when taken with tyramine (cheese), serotonin syndrome

Phenelzine

182

Features of TCA overdose

CCC: Coma, convulsion, cardiotoxicity

183

Erectile dysfunction drugs

A SORE Penis can't Fuck Hard! SSRIs, Opiates, Risperidones, Ethanol, Propanolol, Estrogens, Spironolactone, Finasteride, Hydrochlorothiazide

184

Priaprism causing drugs

Tigas Penis Qu AyaW Bumaba! Trazodone, Papaverine, Sildenafil, Quetiapine, Alprostadil, Warfarin, Bupropion

185

Symptoms of Serotonin Syndrome

FAT CHD! Fever Agitation Tremor Clonus Hyperreflexia Diaphoresis

186

Prototype Opiod (Full agonist) SE: Miosis, respiratory depression, constipation

Morphine

187

Drug for Severe Pina, Breakthrough Cancer pain, available in lollipop form or transdermal patch

Fentanyl

188

Opiod of choice for acute pancreatitis, does NOT cause miosis SE: Seizures

Meperidine

189

Replacement therapy for opiod dependence

Methadone

190

Cough suppression drug

dextrometorphan

191

Balanced anesthesia, frequently abused by healthcare professionals

Nalbuphine

192

Antidote for opiod overdose

Naloxone

193

Treatment for opiod depence

Naltrexone

194

Opiods with the longest and shortest half-lives

REMIFENTANIL: Shortest (3-4 mins), Buprenorphine: Longest (4-8 hours)

195

Opiod overdose triad

Miosis, coma, respiratory depression

196

Opiod receptor functions

Mu (Mubagal huminga, delTa (Tolerance), Kappa (Konstipation)

197

Drug of abuse which causes euphoria, sleeplessness, self-confidence

Amphetamine

198

Drug of abuse which causes sexual enhancement, hyponatremia

MDMA

199

Drug of abuse which causes mydriasis, crack lung, teratogen (cystic cortical lesions)

Cocaine

200

Most dangerous hallucinogen, psychotomimetic effects, nystagmus

Phenylcycline

201

Psychedelic effect drug of abuse which causes out of body experiences, mind raveling effects, bad trips

LSD

202

Drug of abuse which causes a dream like state, red conjunctiva, tachycardia, dry mouth

Marijuana

203

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lowers LDL SE: Hepatotoxicity, rhabdomyolysis, myopathy

Statin

204

Bile acid binding resin, lowers LDL SE: Constipation & Steatorrhea

Cholestyramine ***

205

Cholesterol absorption blocker, lowers LDL

Ezetimide

206

Reduces all building blocks of hyperlipidemia, increases HDL, lowers LDL and TG SE: Flushing, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia

Niacin

207

PPAR-a activator, upregulates lipoprotein lipase, lowers TF SE: Gallstones, additive myopathy

Gemfibrozil

208

Why are statins used in the management of coronary artery disease?

Stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque

209

Drugs that cause flushing

Vancomycin, adenosin, niacin, CCB

210

Treatment of genetic short stature, failure to thrive

Somatropin

211

Treatment of acromegaly, variceal bleeding

Octreotide

212

Treatment of hyperprolactenemia, prolactinoma

Bromocriptine

213

Labor induction and augmentation, control of PPF SE: Fluid retendion

Oxytocin

214

Treatment for Central DI

Desmopressin

215

Treatment of hypothyroidism, myxedema coma

Levothyroxine

216

Inhibits thyroid peroxidase, blocks peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 SE: Aganulocytosis, DOC in pregnant hyperthyroid patients

PTU

217

Inhibits Thyroid Perocidase SE: Agranulocytosis, Teratogen (Aplasia Cutis)

Methimazole

218

Preferred treatment for hyperthyroidism SE: Permanent hypothyroidism

Radioactive Iodine

219

Reduces size and vascularity of thyroid gland

Lugol's Solution or SSKI

220

Symptomatic treatment of hyperthyroidism, decreases peripheral conversion of T4 to T3

Propanolol

221

Difference between Wolf-Chaikoff effect from Jod-Basedow phenomenon?

WC: Iodine Ingestion leads to hypothyroidism JB: leads to hyperthyroidism

222

Anti-thyroid drugs that inhibit peripheral conversion of T4 to T3

Propanolol, PTU, Hydrocortisone

223

Drugs that cause drug-induced hyperthyroidism

Clofibrate, Amiodarone, Methadone?*

224

Acute Adrenal Insufficiency, Status Asthmaticus, Thyroid Storm

Hydrocortisone

225

Prototype oral glucocorticoid SE: Adrenal suppresion, cushing syndrome

Prednisone

226

Hastens fetal lung maturation

Betamethasone

227

Mineralocorticoid replacement for chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease)

Fludrocortisone

228

Two steroids you have to give for hypoadrenalism

Prednisone and Fludrocortisone

229

Most frequently used synthetic estrogen in OCPs SE: Hypertension, DVT/PE, endometrial CA, CI in women AGE >35, who are heavy smokers

Ethynyl estradiol

230

Female gonadal hormone drug which has this SE: Clear cell vafinal adenoCA in daughter

Diethylsilbestrol

231

Prevents estrogen-induced endometrial CA

Norgestrel

232

OCP of choice in lactating women

DMPA

233

Emergency contraception, Yuzpe Regimen

Levonorgestrel

234

Hormone-reponsive breast CA SE: Endometrial CA

Tamoxifen

235

Ovulation induction SE: Multiple pregnancies

Clomiphen

236

Treatment for endometriosis

Danazol

237

Medical Abortion

Mifepristone

238

Treatment of male hypogonadism SE: Virilization, paradoxical feminization

Testosterone

239

Anabolic steroids, illegal performance enhancers

Oxanprolone

240

treatment of prostate cancer, coadministered to prevent acute flareups of tumor

Flutamide + Leuprolide, FLUtangina it’s a FAKE androgen

241

5-a-reductase inhibitor, treatment for BPH and male pattern baldness

Finasteride

242

Most efficatious antidiabetic drug which activates tyrosine Kinase SE: Hypoglycemia, lipodystrophy

Insulin

243

1st generation SU SE: Hypoglycemia, weight gain, Disulfiram reaction

Chlorpromaide

244

2nd generation SU SE: Hypoglycemia, weight gain, disulfiram reaction

Glipizide

245

Newer insulin secretagogue, no hypoglycemia

Repaglinide

246

First line antidiabetic drug, decreases gluconeogenesis SE: Lactic acidosis, weight loss, GI upset

Metformin

247

TZC, Acts on PPAR-gamme, insulin sensitizer SE: CHF

Pioglitazone

248

a-glucosidase inhibitor SE: Flatulence

Acarbose

249

Insulin noteable drugs

LISpro (mabiLIS), gLARGine (Go Large), LANTus (LANTa na sa sobrang tagal!)

250

Which patients are more prone to developing hypoglycemia with insulin use?

Advanced renal disease, elderly, children younger than 7 years

251

Inactive Vitamin D, treatment for Rickets and osteomalacia

Ergocalciferol

252

Active Vitamin D, Tx of 2 Hyperparathyroidism

Calcitriol

253

Treatment of Paget's disease of bone, hypercalcemia, Tumor marker for medullary thyroid Carcinoma

Calcitonin

254

Supresses osteoclast activity, treatment for Paget's disease of the bone and osteoporosis SE: Esophagitis

Alendrolate

255

Phosphate-binding resin

Sevelamer

256

PTH Function

Phosphate trashing hormone

257

Symptoms of Excess PTH

Painful bones, renal stones, abdominal groans, psychic overtones

258

Function of calcitonin

Tones down calcium in the body

259

Neutralizes stomach acids SE: Diarrhea-constipation (Cancels each other)

Maalox

260

Greatly suppresses nocturnal acid secretion, H2 blocker SE: Gynecomastia

Cimetidine

261

Irreversible blockade of H+/K+ ATPase, DOC for PUD and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Omeprazole

262

Prokinetic agent, antiemetic DOC for diabetic gastroparesis

Metoclopromide

263

Osmotive Laxatice, treatment of hepatic encephalopathy

Lactulose

264

Stimulant Laxative SE: Melanosis Coli

Senna

265

Opiod antispasmodic, DOC for noninfectious diarrhea SE: Paralytic ileus (in children)

Loperamide

266

Magnesium hydroxide vs Aluminum Hydroxide differences

MAGtatae ka! (Diarrhea) vs Ayaw LUMabas (Constipation)

267

Taxanes

M-phase: Albumin bound paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Paclitaxel

268

Vinca alkaloids

M-phase: Vinblastine, Vincristine, Vinorelbine

269

Antimicrotubules inhibitor

M-phase: Ixabepilone

270

Antitumor antibiotics (G2-M Phase)

Bleomycin

271

Anthracyclines

Daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone

272

Antitumor abtibiotics

dactinomycin, mitomycin

273

Camptothecins (Topoisomerase I inhibitors)

Irinotecan, Topotecan

274

Platinum Analogs

Carboplatin, Cisplatin, Oxaliplatin

275

Antimetabolites (S-phase)

5-flurouracel, 6-merceptopurine

276

Alkylating Agents

Busullfan
Carmustine
Cyclophosphamide
Dacarbazine

277

Treatment of Lymphomas is using the alkylating agent SE: Hemorrhagic systitis. What is its Rescue agent?

Cyclophosphamide (Rescue: Mesna)

278

Alkylating agent side effect of this drug is marked vesicant actions (Skin blistering)

Mechlorethiamine

279

Alkylating agent used for the treatement of Colon Cancer SE: Ototoxicity, Nephrotoxicity. What is its rescue agent?

Cisplatin (Rescue: Amifox)

280

This alkylating agent's SE are Disulfiram reaction and Leukemogenesis

Procarbazine

281

Side effect of this alkylating agent is Pulmonary Fibrosis, bone marrow sparing

Bulsulfan

282

Alkylating agent used in the treatment of brain tumors SE: CNS Toxicity

Carbustine

283

Which drugs cause pulmonary fibrosis

BBBAN ME! Bleomycin, Busulfan, Bromocriptine, Amiodarone, Nitrofurantoin, Methotrexate

284

Antimetabolite used for the treatment of lymphomas and GTN SE: Myelosuppression, pulmonary fibrosis. What is its rescue agent?

Methotrexate (Leucovorin or Folinic acid)

285

Antimetabolite. Treatment of acute leukemia. SE: Myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity, metabolism inhibited by allopurinol

6-mercaptopurine

286

Treatment of colorectal and skin cancer, causes thymine-less death of cells. SE: Myelosuppression

5-Flurouracil

287

Treatment of CML in blast crisis, most specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. Antimetabolite.

Cytarabine

288

Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, treatment of pancreatic cancer

Gemcitabine

289

Vinca alkaloid. Prevents microtubule assembly. SE: Peripheral neuropathy

Vincristine

290

Podophyllotoxin, inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, Treatment of lung cancer, Non-hodgkin's lymphoma and GTN

Etoposide

291

Camptothecin, inhibits DNA topoisomerase I, treatment of small cell lung cancer

Topotecan

292

Taxane, prevents mictrotubule disassembly, advanced breast and ovarian cancers

Paclitaxel

293

Intercalating agent SE: dilated cardiomyopathy. What is its rescue agent?

Doxorubicin (Rescue agent: Dexrazoxane)

294

Treatment of testicular cancer SE: Pulmonary fibrosis, most specific for the G2 phase of the cell cycle

Bleomycin

295

Treatment of melanoma, Wilms tumor and GTN

Actinomycin D

296

Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor, Treatment of CML SE: Fluid retention, multiple drug interaction

Imatinib

297

Treatment of metastatic breast cancer, active against cells expressing HER-2/neu

Transtuzumab

298

Inhibits VEGF, Treatment of metastatic cancers

Bevacizumab

299

Differentiation therapy, treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, only vitamin that can cure cancer

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)

300

Acute arsenic poisoning, acute mercury poisoning, chronic severe lead poisoning SE: Hypertension

Dimercaprol

301

Pica, ingestion of flakes of paint, abdominal colic, acute encephalopathy, wrist drop, mental retardation

Lead

302

Chronic Lead poisoning (oral treatment)

Succimer

303

Chronic severe lead poisoning SE: Hypocalcemia

EDTA

304

Rice-water stools, garlicky breath, Mee's lines, raindrop pigmentation, milk and roses complexion

Arsenic

305

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, renal failure, loosening of gums and teeth, erethism

Inorganic Mercury

306

Minamata disease (Cerebral palsy, deafness, blindness, mental retardation)

Organic Mercury

307

Severe GI Necrosis, hemosiderosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy

Iron

308

Acute iron poisoning, hemochromatosis

Deferoxamine

309

Hepatotoxicity, Kayser-Fleisher rings, sunflower cataracts

Copper

310

Copper poisoning, Wilson's disease SE: Drug induced lupus

Penicillamine

311

Anti-neoplastic drug known for its nephrotoxicity and acoustic nerve damage

Cisplatin and carboplatin

312

Anti-neoplastic drug known for its Peripheral Neuropathy

Vincristine

313

Anti-neoplastic drug known for Pulmonary Fibrosis

Bleomycin

314

Anti-neoplastic drug known for Hemorrhagic Cystitis

Cyclophosphamide (Rescue: Mesna)

315

Anti-neoplastic drug known for its Severe Myelosuppressive effects

Methotrexate, 5-flurouracil, 6-mercaptopurine

316

Refers to the amount of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation

bioavailability

317

used to determine the safety and efficacy of generic drugs vs the innovator drug

bioequivalence

318

Measures the dose oir concentration required to bring about 50% of the drug's maximal effect

potency

319

dose at which 50% of the individuals exhibit the specified quantal effect

Median effective dose

320

dose at which 50% of the animals manifest a particular toxic effect

Median Toxic dose

321

Transfer of drug from site of administration to blood stream

Absorption

322

Refers the apparent volume into which the drug is able to distribute

Volume of distribution

323

Eliminination of a drug at a constant rate

Zero order kinetics

324

Elimination at a rate that is proportional to the serum concerntraion of the drug

First order kinectic

325

Addition of a polar moiety (sulfate, acetate, or glucoronate)

Phase II Metabolism

326

Use of CYP450 system (oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, or deamination)

Phase I Metabolism

327

Describes the rate at which a specific drug is cleared from the system

Clearance

328

Refers to the amount of time required for the amount of the drug in the body to decrease to half of its value after the administration of the drug has been stopped.

Half-life

329

Defined ast the single amount of drug that is needed to achieve a desired plasma concentration quickly

Loading dose

330

Amount of drug that must be given over time in order to maintain a desired plasma concentration

Maintenance dose

331

Used as a measure of drugs safety

Therapeutic dose

332

Formula for therapeutic index

TD50 / ED50

333

Refers to the dosage range between the minimum effective therapeutic concenration of dose and minimum toxic concentration or dose

Therapeutic window

334

Substance that shifts the graded dose-response curve to the right

Competitive antagonists

335

Substance that does not produce the same maximum effect and is exhibited by a decrease in the Emax

Partial agonist

336

Substance that depress the graded-dose response curve

Irreversible antagonist

337

An agonist that interacts directly with the agonist and not at all or only incidentally with the receptor

Chemical antagonist

338

The action of the drug on the body

Pharmacodynamics

339

The action of the body on the drug

Pharmacokinetics

340

Permeation that is governed by Fick's Law

Aqueous diffusion, Lipid Diffusion

341

Permeation that is saturable and inhibitable

Carrier Transport

342

Adverse effect that is infrequently observed in most patients.

Idiosyncratic

343

Responsiveness decreases as a consequence of continued drug administration

Tolerance

344

Responsiveness diminishes rapidly after drug administration

Tachyphylaxis

345

Induction of developmental defects in the fetus

Teratogenesis

346

Induction of malignant characteristics in cells

Carcinogenesis

347

Induction of changes in the genetic material of animals of any age

Mutagens

348

Cytochrome P450 Inducers

Ethyl Booba takes Phen-Phen and Refuses Greasy Carb Shakes: Ethanol Barbituates Phenytoin, Rifampicin, Griseofulvin, Carbamazepine, St. John's Wort / Smoking

349

Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors

Queen Victoria's SICK GEAR: Quinidine, Valproic Acid, Sulfonamide, Isoniazid, Carbamazepine, Ketoconazole, Grapefruit Juice, Erythromycin, Amiodarone, Rifampicin

350

Route of drug administration with 100% bioavailability

IV

351

Route of drug administration with First pass effect

Oral

352

Route of drug administration with partial avoidance of first pass effect

Rectal

353

Route of drug administration with application to skin for local effect

Topical

354

Route of drug administration with appllication to skin for systemic effect (80% bioavailability; prolonged absorption)

Transdermal

355

Phase of drug study with a small number of volunteers

I

356

Phase of drug study which answers the question "does it work in patients?"

II

357

Phase of drug study when a randomized, double blind, controlled trial is done

IIII

358

Phase of drug study with post-marketing surveillance

IV

359

A drug for rare diseases

Orphan drug

360

How do you hasten extretion of an overdose with a weak base like Diphenhydramine

Acidyfying agent: Ammonium Chloride

361

How do you hasten extretion of an overdose with a weak acid like Aspirin

Alkalynyzing agent: Sodium Bicarbonate

362

Located in the Smooth muscles binding to these receptors promote vasoconstriction (Epi>NE>>Isoprotenol)

Alpha 1

363

Located in the presynaptic NT binding to these receptors inhibits relase of Neurotransmitters (EPI>NE)

Alpha 2

364

Located in the heart binding to these receptors increase rate and contractility (Isoprotenon>Epi>NE)

Beta 1

365

Located in the respiratory Smooth Muscles binding to these receptors promote bonchoconstriction / vasodilation (Isoprotenol>epi>NE)

Beta 2

366

Located in the splanchnic and renal vessels binding to these receptors promote vasodilation of renal blood vessels

Dopamine 1

367

Located in the nerve terminals of the CNS binding to these receptors regulate neurotransmitters

Dopamine 2

368

Bowel and bladder atony

Betanechol (Direct acting muscarinc action M2-M3)

369

Treatment for Sjoren Syndrome

Pilocarpine (Direct acting muscarinic M1,M2,M3)

370

Diagnosis of myesthenia gravis, differentiation of myasthenic and cholinergic crisis

Edrophonium (Indirect acting cholinomimetic, hydrolysis of cholinesterase)

371

Treatment of myasthenia gravis

Neostigmine (Cholinimimetic, indirect acting)

372

Reversal of non-depolarizing neuromuscular block

Neostigmine

373

Treatment of glaucoma

Physostigmine

374

Diagnosis of bronchial hyperreactivity

Methacoline (direct acting)

375

Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (Cholinergic Drug)

Donepezil (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor)

376

Components of Sjogren Syndrome

Autoimmune triad of: Xerostomia, Xerophthalmia & Rheumatoid Arthritis

377

Components of Myasthenia Gravis

Autoimmune destruction of nicotinic Ach receptors characterized by fluctuating muscle weakness (ocular symptoms, bulbar symptoms, proximal muscle weakness)

378

Differentiate myasthenic crisis from cholinergic crisis

Myasthenic crisis (acute worsening of symptoms due to infection, stress, or UNDER medication) Cholinergic crisis (excessive activation of cholinoreceptors due to OVER medication)

379

How does Edrophonium differentiate myasthenic crisis from cholinergic crisis?

Edrophonium IMPROVES muscle strength in myasthenic crisis and WEAKENS muscle strength in cholinergic crisis

380

Small cell cancer may present with a myasthenia like paraneoplastic syndrome. What is this condition called?

Lambert-Eaton syndrome: Destruction of presynaptic voltage gate Ca Channels by antibodies

381

What are the signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning?

DUMBBELSS: Diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, bradycardia, excitation (skeletal muscle and CNS), sweating, salivation

382

Cholinergic antagonist that leads to induction of mydriasis and cycloplegia

Tropicamide

383

Treatment for Sinus bradycardia

Atropine

384

Cholinergic antagonist for Parkinson's disease

Benztropine

385

Cholinergic antagonist for COPS

Ipratropium (M3 antagonist)

386

Cholinergic antagonist for motion sickness, sea sickness

Scopolamine

387

Gastrointestinal Spasms

Hyoscyamine

388

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning/ nerve gas poisoning

Atropine & Pralidoxime

389

Muscarinic antagonists for Parkinsons disease

TRI to park your BENZ and make BIP BIP: TRIhexyphenidyl, BENZtropine, BIPeriden

390

Why is ipratropium the preferred bronchodilator in patients with comorbid COPD and heart disease?

Ipratropium is less likely to cause tachycardia and cardiac arryhthmias

391

Signs of atropine toxicity?

HOT as a hare, DRY as a bone, RED as a beet, BLIND as a bat, MAD as a hatter

392

DOC for anaphylactic shock, adjunct to local anesthesia, cardiac arrest, croup

Epinephrine

393

Acute CHF, cardiac stress testing

Dobutamine

394

Acute CHF, Shock (Cardiogenic, septic)

Dopamine

395

Drug of last resort for shock

Norepinephrine

396

Nasal congestion, mydriasis WITHOUT cycloplegia

phenylephrine

397

SE: Rebound hypertension of this antihypertensive on discontinuation

Clonidine

398

Drug for preeclampsia SE: Hemolytic anemia (positive coombs test)

Methyldopa

399

Bronchial asthma, COPS

Salbutamol (B2-agonist)

400

Tocolysis for preterm labor

Terbutaline (B2-agonist)

401

Preoperative treatment for pheochromocytoma

Phenoxybenzamine

402

Treatment for rebound hypertension

Phentolamine

403

BPH SE: First dose orthostatic hypotension

Prazosin (Give before bed time)

404

Angina prophylaxis, hyperthyroidism, masks hypoglycemia in diabetics

Propanolol

405

Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity

Pindolol

406

Beta-1 selectivity

Atenolol

407

Treatment for glaucoma adrenergic antagonist which decreases production of aquaeous humor

Timolol

408

Combined alpha and beta blockade

Labetalol

409

What are drugs used to control blood pressure in pheochromocytoma?

Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Labetalol

410

What is the pharmacologic advantage of a1 selectivity?

Reflex tachycardia is less common and less severe

411

Isisoproterenol a beta blocker?

Is a ISOproterenol is NOT a beta blocker it is a nonselective beta agonist

412

What drugs have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity?

Pindolol, Acebutolol

413

Adrenergic antagonist with the longest half life

Nadolol (NAsaDOLO)

414

Adrenergic antagonist with the shortest half life

Esmolol (Esmol)

415

What is the formula for blood pressure?

BP = COxSVR

416

What is the expanded formula for your blood pressure?

BP=HRxSVxSVR

417

First line drug for essential hypertension

Hydrochlorothiazide

418

Hypertension with comorbid CHF/ DM SE: cough, angioedema, CI in bilateral RAS

Captopril (Ace-i)

419

Coughing with ACE inhibitors alternative

Losartan (ARBs)

420

Hypertension with comobid BPH

Prazosin (a1-blocker)

421

Pre-eclampsia (maintenance medication) SE: Hemolytic anemia (positive coombs test)

Methyldopa

422

Pre-eclampsia (acute BP lowering) SE: Reflex tachycardia, drug induced lupus

Hydralazine

423

Hypertensive emergency SE: Hypertrichosis

Minoxidil

424

Hypertensive emergency SE: Cyanide poisoning

Nitroprusside

425

Treatment of cyanide poisoning

Inhaled Amyl Nitrite + IV sodium nitrite + IV sodium thiosulfate

426

Which portion of the electron transport chain is affected by cyanide?

Complex IV (Cytochrome Oxidase)

427

Relief of acute anginal attacks SE: headache

NTG, ISDN (short onset)

428

Angina maintenance (Vascular > Cardiac effect) SE: Flushing edema, gingival hyperplasia

Nifedipine (dihydropterydine)

429

Angina maintenance (Vascular < Cardiac effect) vasospastic angina, Raynaud's phenomenon, doest NOT cause gingival hyperplasia

Diltiazem (non-dihydropteryine)

430

Supraventricular tachycardia (Cardiac > Vascular) SE: Gingival hyperplasia

Verapamil (non-DHP)

431

Why do patients taking nitrates usually experience throbbing headaches?

Dilation of meningeal

432

Why is calcium-dependent neurotransmission or hormone realease not affected by CCBs?

CCBs block L-type calcium channels other functions use N,P, and R types

433

Drugs that cause gingival hyperplasia

NapaCa Pangit ng gingiVa mo! Nifedipine, Cyclosporine, Phenytoin, Verapamil

434

Positive inotrope for heart failure SE arrythmias (PVC AVB) RG color blindness, yellow visual haloes

Digoxin

435

Treatment for pulmonary edema in CHF

Furosemide

436

First line drug for chronic CHF, cardioprotective, prevents cardiac remodelling

Ace-I, ARB

437

Improves survival (decreases mortality) in CHF

Ace-I, ARB, BB, Spironolactone

438

Decreases hospitalizations in CHF

Digoxin

439

Improves survival in CHF patients of African-American descent

Hydralazine + ISDN

440

What drugs have been shown to improve survival in cases of heart failure?

ABA! Buhay ka pa! ACEi, Beta Blockers, Aldosterone antagonists

441

Treatment of all types of arrythmias, WPW syndrome SE: Drug induced lupus

Procainamide

442

SE: Cinchonism (headache, tinnitus, vertigo)

Quinidine

443

Post-MI arrythmias, digitalis arrhytmias, SE Seizures

Lidocaine

444

CI post-MI, refractory arrythmia

Fleicanide

445

Perioperative and thyrotoxic arrhythmias, SVT

Esmolol

446

SE: dose-dependent torsades de pointes

Sotalol

447

Most efficacious antiarrythmic, SE: Skin deposits, pulmonary fibrosis, hyper/ hypothyroidism

Amiodarone

448

Outpatient management of SVT SE: Gingival hyperplasia

Verapamil

449

What are the effects of class I antiarrythmics on action potential duration?

1A: prolongs AP 1B: shortens 1C: no change

450

Class IA Anti-arrhythmics

I Am the Queen who Proclaimed Diso's pyramid: Quinidine, Procainamide, Dysopyramide

451

Class IB Anti-arrhytmics

I Buy Mexican Taco's from Lili: Mexiletine, Tocainide, Lidocaine (Best post MI)

452

Class IC Anti-arrhytmics

Chicken ay Pagkain for Enrico: IC: Propafenone, Flecainide, Encainide (IC: CI post MI)

453

Drugs that causes agranulocytosis

CCCAPPIT! Clozapine, Co-trimoxazole, colchicine, aminopyrine, phenybutazone, PTU, ondimethacin, Tocainide

454

Amiodarone Toxicity

Pulmonary fibrosis, paresthesias, tremors, thyroid dysfunction, corneal deposits, skin deposits

455

Why are dihydropyridine CCBs not useful as antiarrhytmics

They evoke compensatory sympathetic discharge which facilitates arrhytmias rather than terminating them

456

Antiarrythmics that prolong AP duration, PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval

1A Procainamide

457

Anti-arrythmics that shorten AP duration and has NO effect on normal cells on the ECG

1B Lidocaine

458

Anti-arrythmics that has no effect on AP duration, but prolongs QRS duration on ECG

1C Flecainide

459

Anti-arrythmics that has no effect on AP duration, but prolongs PR interval on ECG

2 Propanolol

460

Anti-arrythmics that prolongs AP duration, and prolongs QT interval on ECG

3 Dofetilide

461

Anti-arrythmics that has no effect on AP duration, but prolongs PR interval on ECG

4 Verapamil

462

This acts on the PCT, treatment of glaucoma and mountain sickness SE: NAGMA, hepatic encephalopathy

Acetazolamide

463

Acts on TAL, treatment of pulmonary edema, most efficacious diuretic SE: ototoxicity, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia

Furosemide

464

Acts on DCT SE: Hyper GLUC

Hydrochlorothiazide

465

Acts on PCT, DCT, CCD, Treatment of rhabdomyolysis and increased ICP, CI in heart failure

Mannitol

466

HAGMA drugs

MUDPILES

467

NAGMA drugs

HARDUP

468

Adverse effects associates with loop diuretics

OH DANG! Ototoxicity, Hypokelemia, Dehydration, Allergy to sulfa, Nephritis, Gout

469

Adverse effects of Thiazide diuretics

HYPER GLUC

470

What drugs can cause gynecomastia

Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers: Spironolactone, Digoxin, Cimetidine, Alcohol, Ketoconazole

471

Treatment of iron deficiency anemia

Ferrous sulfate

472

treatment of megaloblastic anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency

Cyanocobalamin

473

Treatment of megaloblastic anemia, prevention of Neural tube defects (Spina Bifida)

Folic acid

474

Anemia in chronic kidney disease

Erythropoetin

475

Treatment of neutropenia and agranulocytosis

Figrastim (GMCSF)

476

Treatment of chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia

Opelverin (Thrombopoeitin)

477

Acute treatment of DVT, PE and AMI SE: Bleeding thrombocytopenia, monitor with PTT

Heparin

478

LMWH less risk of thrombocytopenia, no need for monitoring

Enoxaparin

479

Treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

Lepirudin

480

Antidote to heparin-induced bleeding

Protamine-Sulfate

481

Chronic anti-coagulation SE: Bleeding skin necrosis, and many drug interactions

Warfarin

482

Antidote to warfarin (Immediate and over time)

FFP, Vitamin K

483

What laboratory tests will you request to assess intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways

PTT (intrinsic) PT (extrinsic

484

In patients requiring anticoagulation, why is an overlap between heparin and warfarin usually done?

1. Warfarin's effect requires elimination of preformed clotting factors (8-60h) 2. to bypass initial prothrombic effect of warfarin (skin necrosis)

485

Thrombolysis in AMI, ischemic CVD and PE SE Bleeding

Alteplase, R-TPA

486

Bacteria-derived thrombolytic, decreased effect on subsequent uses due to antibody formation

Streptokinase

487

Antidote to thrombolytic overdose

Aminocaproic Acid (Tranexamic acid)

488

Irreversible COS inhibitor, instant prevention of arterial thrombosis SE: Tinnitus, hypersensitivity, Reye Syndrome

Aspirin

489

ADP inhibitor, additive effects with Aspirin

Clopidogrel

490

Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor

Abciximab

491

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor

Dipyridamole

492

How many 500 mg aspirin tablets must be ingested to produce toxicity? death?

toxic dose 150mg/kg x70kg = 21 tablets, lethal dose 500mg/kg = 70 tabs

493

Triad for aspirin hypersensitivity

Sampter's triad: aspirin hypersensitivity, asthma, nasal polyp

494

What are the signs of ASA poisoning?

Aspirin poisoning C-H-A-F-S (Coma, hyperventilation, Acidosis (HAGMA), Fever, Seizure

495

What is the expected acid-base abnormality in salicylate poisoning?

Respiratory alkalosis with HAGMA

496

What is the difference between an inhibitor and an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation ?

Inhibitors completely halt ETC, uncouplers: dissipate proton gradient without interrupting ETC

497

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lowers LDL SE: Hepatotoxicity, rhabdomyolysis, myopathy

Simvastatin

498

Bile acid binding resin, lowers LDL SE constipation steatorrhea

Cholestyramine

499

Cholesterol absorption blocker, lowers LDL

Ezetmibe

500

Reduces all building blocks for hyperlipidemia, increases HDL, lowers LDL and TG se: flushing hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

501

PPAR-a activator, upregulated lipoprotein lipase, lowers TG SE: Gallstones, additive myopathy

Gemfibrozil

502

Why statins are used in the management of coronary artery disease?

For atherosclerotic plaque stabilization

503

What are the drugs that cause flushing?

VANC: Vancomycin, Adenosine, Niacin, CCB

504

Irreversibly inhibits COX 1 & 2

Aspirin

505

Reversible inhibitor COX 1 & 2

NSAIDS (Ibuprofen)

506

Irreversibly inhibits COX 2

Celecoxib

507

Reversibly inhibits COX 1 and 2, antipyretic of choice in pediatric population

Paracetamol

508

Treatment of hypersensitivity SE: Sedation

Diphenhydramine

509

Adjunct for motion sickness, vertigo

Meclizine

510

Treatment of hypersensitivity, non-sedating

Cetirizine

511

Treatment of peptic ulcers SE Gynecomastia

Cimetidine

512

Drug of choice for migraine and cluster headache

Sumatriptan

513

Treatment for postop and postchemo vomiting

Ondansetron

514

adjunct for migraine and cluster headache

Ergotamine

515

Treatment of postpartum bleeding

Ergonovine

516

SE: retroperitoneal fibrosis

Methylsergide

517

PGE-1 analog used for erectile dysfunction and also maintains PDA patency

Alprostadil

518

PGE-1 analog which is used for NSAID induced gastritis

Misoprostol

519

PGEF2A analog which is used for chronic glaucoma

Latanoprost

520

PGE2 analog which could be used as an abortifacient or cervical ripening

Dinoprost

521

PGF2A analog which could be used as an abortifacient

Carboprost

522

PGI2 analog which could be used for pulmnonary hypertension

Epoprostenol

523

Drug of choice for acute asthma attacks

Salbutamol (B2-agonist)

524

adjunct for asthma maintenance

Salmeterol

525

Prophylaxis for nocturnal asthma SE Seizures, antidote: Propanolol

Theophylline (Methylxanthines)

526

Bronchodilator of choice in COPD

Ipratropium

527

Stabilizes mast cells, No bronchodilator effect

Cromolyn

528

Drug of choice for asthma maintenance SE: oral candidiasis, growth stunting

Fluticasone

529

Lipoxygenase inhibitor, SE: Increase AST/ALT

Zileuton

530

Blocks slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis (Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4)

Montelukast