Pharmacotherapy of Upper Airway Flashcards Preview

CVPR: Pulmonary > Pharmacotherapy of Upper Airway > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacotherapy of Upper Airway Deck (14)
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1

1st generation of anti-histamines: examples

Diphenhydramine

Chlorpheniramine

Brompheniramine

Dimenhydrinate

Meclizine

2

1st gen. of anti-histamines: site + mechanism of action

  • H1 antagonist​
  • also antagonizes cholinergic, alpha adrenergic, seratonin, muscarinic receptors 
  • Lungs, vessels

3

1st gen. of anti-histamines: uses

Treat rhinorhea and congestion, itching, sneezing.  Motion sickness, sedative, antiemetic.

 

Allergic rhinitis (+++)

Viral rhinitis (+)

4

1st gen. of anti-histamines: side effects

If get to brain: Sedation

Decrease congnitive and psychomotor performance

Increase appetite

Cholinergic: dry mouth, urinary retention, sinus tachycardia, hypotension, dizziness, reflex tachycardia

5

2nd gen. of anti-histamines: examples

  • Loratadine
  • Cetirizine
  • Fexofenadine

6

2nd gen. of anti-histamines: site + mechanism of action

  • Selective for H1 receptor
  • Lungs and vessels. 

7

2nd gen. of anti-histamines: uses

Allergic inflamation, itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea.

8

2nd gen. of anti-histamines: side effects

NO anticholinergic/ antiadrenergic side effects, No CNS effects. No BBB crossing

9

Decongestant characteristics + examples


  • sympathomimetics ==> alpha 1 agonists that cause vasoconstriction 

  • Pseudoephedrine = oral, best, not a MAO substrate) (a1, b1, b2) 



  • Phenylephrine = MAO substrate, but more effective than pseudoephedrine if taken nasally, increases BP, urinary retention (a1 only)






    • over use ==> ischemia, rebound congestion 







  • Oxymetolazine  

 

 

 

10

Antitussive agent examples

Codeine / Dextromethorphan 

11

Expectorant example

Guaifenesin

12

Mucolytic example

N-Acetylcysteine

13

Tx of asthma

  • glucocorticoids
  • bronchodilators

14

Tx of allergic rhinitis

  • gluococorticoids
  • mast cell inhibitors
  • antihistamines
  • decongestants