Overview of the Pulmonary System Flashcards Preview

CVPR: Pulmonary > Overview of the Pulmonary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overview of the Pulmonary System Deck (13)
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1

Gas exchange requires coordination of which organs

  1. lung, chest wall, respiratory muscles
  2. heart and pulmonary circulation
  3. central and peripheral nerve receptors

2

Pleura characteristics/fxn

  • two layers: visceral and parietal
  • visceral=lines lungs
  • pariental=lines inside of chest wall
  • pleural space=fluid filled space between pleural layers
  • fxn=allows smooth movement of lungs within the thoracic cavity during inspiration and expiration

3

Main components of respiratory anatomy

4

Lobes of the lung

  • 2 Left: Left Upper Lobe, Left Lower Lobe
  • 3 Right: Right Upper Lobe, Right Middle Lobe, Right Lower Lobe

5

Conducting airways vs. Gas exchange units

  • Conducting airways: trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
  • Gas exchange units: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

6

Structure of conducting airways

  • inner mucosal surface: epithelium, cilia, goblet cells
  • smooth muscle layer
  • outer connective tissue
  • @ transition from bronchi --> bronchioles: loss of outer cartilage

7

Acinus definition

  • =gas-exchange region
  • =respiratory bronchioles + alveolar ducts + alveoli

8

Types of alveolar epithelial cells

  • Type I cells = "pneumocytes" = squamous lining fused w/capillary for gas exchange
  • Type II cells = "secretory cells" = 
    • repair/replace injured Type I cells
    • secrete surfacant (lowers alveolar surface tension)

9

Embryonic stage of lung development: events & human age

  • foregut endoderm extends into mesenchyme
  • 3 rounds of branching --> lung lobes
  • age: 26 days -- 6 wks

10

Pseudoglandular stage of lung development: events & human age

  • 4 rounds of branching form terminal bronchioles

  • age: 6 - 16 wks

11

Canalicular stage of lung development: events & human age

  • Terminal bronchiole divides into 2+ respiratory bronchioles

  • Surfactant production begins and increases as weeks progress

  • Age: 16 - 28 wks

12

Saccular stage of lung development: events & human age

  • Respiratory bronchioles subdivide to produce terminal sacs (these continue to develop well into childhood)
  • Age: 28 - 36 wks

13

Alveolar stage of lung development: events & human age

  • Lung grows & alveoli mature:

  • Septea thin

  • Single capillary network in alveolar wall

  • Gas exchange unit established

  • Age: 36 wks -- 5 yrs