Flashcards in Physical Sciences Deck (79)
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Characterized by their ability to retain their shape. They melt when heated and vaporize only slightly. All substances become ______ if cooled sufficiently.
These take the shape of their containers, yet cannot be compressed to any significant extent. Their volume is constant unless evaporation is occurring. They crystallize when chilled sufficiently; heat causes them to vaporize.
They expand to fill any available space. A compressible fluid, with the volume determined by the pressure and temperature of the environment. The volume varies inversely with pressure.
The law stating that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure. If the pressure increases, the volume decreases (the opposite is also true)
________ makes it possible for some elements and compounds to transform from a solid to a gas phase without becoming a liquid (I.e. Dry ice turning into a gas at room temperature)
Some gases can turn directly into a solid (e.g. The formation of frost)
The amount of matter in a chemical substance
Divide mass by volume
Various properties of matter in the solid phase that give it a high resistance to its shape-changing when force is applied
Resistance to fracture or plastic (permanent) deformation due to friction from a sharp object
Resistance to plastic (permanent) deformation due to a constant load from a sharp object
Height of the bounce of an object dropped on the material, related to elasticity.
This scale is used to rate minerals 1-10 on hardness. (1=talc 10=diamond)
Moh's scale of hardness
Characteristics that make up physical composition of a substance. (I.e. Color, form, electrical conductivity, density)
When water changes from a gas (vapor) to a liquid (water) to a solid (ice), but the molecules themselves do not change.
When a substance changes into something else/whenever compounds are formed or decomposed. Usually not reversible. (I.e. Formation of rust)
__________ show the number of molecules or formula units of the reactants and products.
These subatomic particles have a negative charge and are attracted to positively charged protons (this attraction keeps them in orbit around the nucleus)
These are composed of only one atom and cannot be separated into different substances except in some instances by radioactive decay or by nuclear reactions
This number is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of their atoms
The sum of protons and neutrons
The chemical combination of two or more elements
This chart arranges all the elements from left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number and generally coincide with their increasing atomic mass.
The periodic table of elements
Number of total known elements
Number of naturally occurring elements (the rest are synthetic)
The measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Not an absolute scale.
The pH scale
Solutions with a pH scale less than 7.0
Solutions with a pH greater than 7.0
Basic or alkaline