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Flashcards in Physio II Lecture 3 Deck (77):
1

include both free and encapsulated endings receiving skin tactile sensidbility

mechanoreceptors

2

mechanoreceptor expanded tip endings

merkel's discs

3

mechanoreceptors spray endings

ruffini's corpuscles

4

Name the two specific mechanoreceptors which feature encapsulated endings:

meissner's corpuscles
kraus corpuscles

5

mechanoreceptors hearing

sound receptors of cochlea

6

mechanoreceptors with encapsulated endings, responsible for sensitivity to pressure and vibrations

pacinian corpuscles

7

mechanoreceptors equilibrium

vestivular receptors

8

mechanorepectors arterial pressure

baroreceptors

9

cold and warm receptors

thermoreceptors

10

free nerve endings responding to pain

nociceptors

11

include rods and cones of the eye for vision

electromagnetic receptors

12

taste, smell, arterial oxygen, osmolarity, blood CO2, Blood glucose, amino acids, fatty acids

chemoreceptors

13

each type of receptor is highly sensitive to one type of stimulus and is almost nonresponsive to toher types

differential sensitiivty

14

refers to each of the principal types of sensation

modality

15

adaption of receptors

-all sensory receptors adapt either partially or completly to any constant stiumuls after a period of time
-some receptors adapt to a far greater extent than others

16

the specificity of nerve fibers for transmitting only on modality of sensation

Labeled Line Principle

17

characteristics of tonic receptors

-slow adapting
-detect continous stimulus strength-transmit impulses as long as stimulus is present

18

Types of tonic receptors

muscle spindlesgolgi tendon organsmacula and vestibular receptorsbaroreceptorschemoreceptors

19

characteristics of phasic receptors

rapidly adapting
do no transmit a continuous signal
stimulated only when stimulus strength changes
transmit informaiton regarding rate of change

20

Type A fibers

further subdivided into, alpha, gamma, beta, deltalg and medium sized myelinated fibers of spinal nerves

21

Type C

small, unmyelinated fibers
conduct signals at low velocity
make up more than half of all sensory fibers in most peripheral nerves and all post ganglionic autonomic fibers

22

fibers from annulospiral endings of muscle spindles

Group Ia (Type Aalpha fibers)

23

Fibers from golgi tendon organs

Group Ib (Type Aalpha fibers)

24

from cutaneous tactile receptors and flower spray

group II ( type Abeta, gamma fibers)

25

carry temp, crude touch, and pricking pain

group III (type A delta fibers)

26

carry pain, itch temperature, and crude tough

group IV (type C fibers)

27

Temporal summation

-increase signal strength by increasing frquencey of nerve impulses in each fiber

28

Explain/describe the concept of Spatial summation

increasing signal strenth in transmittted by using progressively greater number of fibers
-entire cluster of nerve endings from one pain fiber covers an area of skin referred to as the receptor field for that fiber
-number of endings is lg in center of field buy is reduced in periphery
-nerve endings from one pain fiber overlap those of other pain fibers

29

stimulatory field of nueronal pool

-stimuatled by each incoming nerve fiber
-terminals for each input fiber lie on the nearest neuron in its field
- fewer terminals for each input fiber lie on neurons further away

30

give examples of a neuronal pool

cerebral cortex
basal nuclei
thalmaic nuclei
cerebellum
mesencephalon
pons
medulla
gray matter of spinal cord

31

includes all the output fibers stimulated by the incoming fiber

discharge zone

32

faciliated inhibition zone

-neurons further from the discharge zone that are facilitated but not excited-may be inhibitory or excitatory depending on the input fiber

33

diverging neuronal pathways

may result in amplification of initial signalmay allow transmission of original signal to separte areas

34

converging neuronal pathways

multiple input fibers converge onto a single output neuroninput fibers may be from a single source or from multiple separate sources

35

Reverberatory circuits or oscillatory circuits

caused by postivie feedbback within neuronal circuitcircuit once stimulated may discharge repetitively for a long time

36

What are somatic senses?

collect sensory information from all over the body

37

What are three types of somatic senses?

mechanoreceptive
thermoreceptive
pain

38

What are some examples of special senses?

vision, hearing, smell, taste, equilibrium

39

What are exteroreceptive sensations?

From the surface of the body

40

What is proprioceptive sensations?

refer to physical state of the body-position sensations-muscle and tendon sensations-pressure sensations-equilibrium

41

What are deep sensations

deep pressure, pain, and vibrations

42

What are mechanoreceptive somatic senses?

include both tactile and position senses that are stimulated by mechanical displacement of some tissue of the body

43

What are physiological types of somatic senses?

mechanoreceptive somatic senses
thermoreceptive senses
pain sense

44

What are three neuron ascending pathways?

primary sensory neurons
secondary neurons
tertiary neurons

45

What are primary sensory neurons?

from external receptors
travel through dorsal roots of spinal cord

46

What are secondary neurons?

make up tracts in spinal cord and brainstem

47

What are tertiary neurons?

from thalamus to primary sensory cortextravel through internal capsule

48

What are two examples of ascending pathways for conscious perception?

spinothalamic system
medial lemniscal system

49

What are ascending pathways that are unconscious perception?

spinocerebellar
spino olivary
spinotectal
spinoreticular

50

What makes up the spinothalmaic system?

lateral spinothalamic tract anterior spinothalamic tract

51

What does the lateral spinothalamic tract

-carries pain and temperature
-primary fibers ascend or descend 1-2 spinal cord segments before synapsing with secondary fibers
-secondary axons decussate through anterior gray and white commissures
-secondary axons make up the lateral spinothalamic tract traveling in the lateral column of the spinal cord

52

Where are the secondary fibers in the lateral spinothalamic tract joined?

in brainstem by fibers of the trigeminothalamic tract-pain and temperature from face an teeth

53

secondary fiber collaterals project to reticular formation for the lateral spinothalamic tract in order to do what?

stimulate wakefulness and consciousness

54

Where do secondary fibers project of the lateral spinothalamic tract?

to ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of thalamus

55

Where do secondary fibers synapse in the lateral spinothalamic tract?

with tertiary fibers in VPL

56

Where does tertiary fibers (corticopetal fibers) of the lateral spinothalamic tract synapse?

in postcentral gyrus: somatic sensory areas 3,1,2

57

What does the tertiary fibers of the lateral spinothalamic tract form?

internal capsule

58

What caries light touch(crude touch), pressure, tickle, itch?

anterior spinothalamic tract

59

What is the medial lemniscus system also called?

posterior column system

60

What does the medial lemniscus system carry sensation for?

two point sensation (Fine touch), pressure, and vibration

61

Where does primary fibers ascend for medial lemniscus system?

entire length of spinal cord and synapse with secondary neurons in medulla

62

What are the secondary neurons in medulla?

fasciculus gracilisfasciculus cuneatus

63

Where do fibers of fasciculus gracilis synapse?

in nucleus gracilis-convey sensations from below midthoracic level

64

Where doe fibers of fasciculus cuneatus synapse?

in nucleus cuneatus-convey sensations from above midthoracic level-also conveys proprioceptive sensation from arms to cerebellum

65

What do medial lemniscus system secondary fibers do?

- decussate- ascend to synapse in VPL of thalamus, and then the tertiary will ascend through the internal capsule to the primary sensory cortex.

66

What do medial lemniscus system tertiary fibers do?

ascend through internal capsule to primary sensory cortex

67

What do the anterior spinothalamic tract primary neurons?

may ascend 8-10 spinal cord segments before synapsing with secondary neurons

68

What do the anterior spinothalamic tract secondary fibers do?

-decussate in anterior gray or white commissures- ascend to synapse with tertiary fibers in VPL nucleus of thalamus

69

What do the anterior spinothalamic tract tertiary fibers do?

ascend through internal capsule to primary sensory cortex.

70

All of the output neurons that are stimulated by an incoming fiber comprise the __________.A) Neuronal PoolB) Discharge ZoneC) Zone of FacilitationD) Stimulatory field

Ans: B) Discharge Zone

71

Which tract is known for ascending or descending 1 to 2 vertebral segments before synapsing on a secondary neuron in the CNS?a) Anterior Spinothalamic Tractb)Medial Lemniscus Systemc) the Fasciculus Cuneatusd)the Fasciculus gracilise) the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract

e) the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract

72

Which Tract system is sensitive to vibration, pressure and 2 point sensation? a) Anterior Spinothalamic Tractb)Medial Lemniscus Systemc) the Fasciculus Cuneatusd)the Fasciculus gracilise) the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract

b)Medial Lemniscus System

73

Which specific tract conveys proprioceptive sensation from the arms to the cerebellum?a) Anterior Spinothalamic Tractb)Medial Lemniscus Systemc) the Fasciculus Cuneatusd)the Fasciculus gracilise) the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract

c) the Fasciculus Cuneatus

74

Which tract specifically synapses in the nucleus gracilis and conveys sensations from below the mid thoracic level?a) Anterior Spinothalamic Tractb)Medial Lemniscus Systemc) the Fasciculus Cuneatusd)the Fasciculus gracilise) the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract

d)the Fasciculus gracilis

75

T/F: The Temporal Summation is when an increased signal strength is increased by the number of neurons synapsing and thereby increasing the frequency of nerve impulses.

FALSE. The Temporal Summation is when there is an increase in signal strength by increasing the frequency of nerve impulses, but it will be from THE SAME presynaptic fibers... not additional ones

76

Define Discharge Zone:

includes all the output fires stimulated by incoming fibers

77

Ruffini Corpuscles can be remembered because "Ruffles have ridges." What type of endings do these Free Mechanoreceptors have?

Free expanded spray endings.